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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (32):
1

What are the three main functions of a nervous system?

1. Receive sensory input
2. Integrate the input
3. Respond to stimuli

2

What structures comprise the Central Nervous System (CNS)?

Brain & Spinal Cord

3

Sensory and motor neurons are collectively called the ______

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

4

The structural and functional unit of the nervous system is the _____

Neuron

5

What are the five main parts of a neuron?

1. Cell body
2. Dendrites
3. Axon
4. Axon terminals
5. Myelin sheith

6

The site of contact between a synaptic terminal of a neuron and a target, such as another neuron, a muscle cell, or a gland, is called a _____

Synapse

7

What is the minimum number of neurons that can make up a "reflex arc," and what would these neurons be?

2; there must be at least ONE sensory and ONE motor neuron

8

What are "interneurons"?

connections within the CNS

9

Supporting cells are called _____

Neuroglia (Glial cell)

10

What cells form the insulating sheaths around axons and where are they found?

Schwann cells; PNS

11

In a neuron, an action potential can only be generated ______

in ONE direction

12

The "motor division" of the peripheral nervous system is divided into two functional divisions, called the ______ and ______ nervous systems

Somatic
Autonomic

13

The somatic nervous system carries signals to ____

Muscles

14

The autonomic nervous system carries signals to ____

Organs

15

What are the spinal meninges?

Membranes that surround and protect brain and spinal cord

16

What are the 3 meningeal layers?

From touching the brain out,
1. Dura Mater
2. Arachmoid
3. Pia Mater

17

What are reflexes?

Rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli

18

List the three major parts of the brain

1. Cerebrum
2. Cerebellum
3. Brain Stem

19

Differentiate between gyri and sulci

Gyri = meaty ridges
Sulci = grooves

20

Identify the lobes of the cerebrum

1. Frontal
2. Parietal
3. Temporal
4. Occipital

21

What functions are associated with the cerebrum?

"control center" - voluntary activities

22

Why is white matter white?

Mylinated axons; has myelin

23

What are some characteristics of people who are left v. right brain dominant?

Left:
Analytical, mathematical, thinks in parts
Right:
Creative, artistic, thinks in whole

24

What are the purposes of the ventricles in the brain?

cerebralspinal fluid production

25

What are 3 parts of the diencephalon?

1. Thalamus
2. Hypothalamus
3. Epithalamus

26

Describe the function of the thalamus and hypothalamus

Thalamus:
Switching station for sensory input
Hypothalamus:
Control center for hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature

27

Which minor part of the diencephalon controls emotions?

Amygdala

28

What is the job of the cerebellum?

Involuntary actions e.g. muscle movements and balance

29

List the 4 parts of the brain stem

1. Medulla Oblongata
2. Pons
3. Midbrain
4. diencephalon

30

List the functions of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

MB- "mini brain" hearing & vision
Pons- links cerebral cortex and cerebellum
MO- involuntary functions - heart rate & breathing

31

List the Cranial Nerves (12) and their functions

1. Olfactory
2. Optic
3. Oculomotor
4. Trochlear
5. trigeminal
6. Abducens
7. Facial
8. Vestibulococholear
9. Glossopharyngeal
10. Vagus
11. Accessory
12. Hypoglossal

32

What are the two major fissures and what do they separate?

1. Longitudinal - brain hemispheres
2. Transverse - cerebrum & cerebellum