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Flashcards in Networks & Internet Protocols Deck (38)
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IS Infrastructure Components

  • System software
  • Storage
  • Networking



database characteristics

  • tools for collecting and organising information

  • organised to facilitate data searches


what is application software

Application software is the software tools used to complete the work required to operate and manage an organization.


define operating systems + examples

control computer hardware operations

  • Manages hard drives and storage
  • Manages keyboard, mouse, monitor, and printers
  • Coordinates application access to computing resources


3 types/uses of storage

Operational: For processing transactions or for data analysis

Backup: Short-term copies of organisational data, used to recover from system-related disaster. Backup data are frequently overwritten with newer backups

Archival: Long-term copies of organisational data, often used for compliance and reporting purposes


components of networking

  1. sender
  2. transmission channel & protocols
  3. message
  4. receiver


Networking and Communication Trends

Convergence: Telephone and computer networks converging into single digital network using Internet standards

Broadband: accessibility increases

Broadband wireless: Data communication are increasingly done over wireless platforms (VoIP)


Major components in simple network

  • Client and server computers
  • Network interfaces (NICs)
  • Connection medium
  • Network operating system
  • Hubs, switches, routers


define software-defined networking (SDN)

Functions of switches and routers managed by central consule

The goal is to enable cloud computing and network engineers and administrators to respond quickly to changing requirements via a centralised control console. 


components of networks in large companies

  • Hundreds of LANs linked to firmwide corporate network
  • Various powerful servers
    • Website
    • Corporate intranet, extranet
    • Backend systems
  • Mobile wireless LANs (Wi-Fi networks)
  • Videoconferencing system
  • Telephone network



Key digital networking technologies

  1. Client/server computing
  2. Packet switching
  3. TCP/IP and connectivity


characteristics of client/server computing

Distributed computing model

  • Clients linked through network controlled by network server computer
  • Server
    • sets rules of communication for network and
    • provides every client with an address so others can find it on the network
  • The Internet: largest implementation of client/server computing
  • Has largely replaced centralised mainframe computing


explain packet switching

  • Method of slicing digital messages into packets, sending packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling packets at destination
    • Sometimes a conversion between digital and analog occurs, because phone lines and other connects still use analog signals: a modem translates this
    • Previous circuit-switched networks required assembly of complete point-to-point circuit
    • Packet switching more efficient use of network’s communications capacity


TCP/IP and connectivity

Protocols: rules that govern transmission of information between two computers

  • IP is a core protocol and a format for information in transit (IP packet) 
  • TCP uses IP to provide a reliable mechanism to send sequences of bytes from source to destination
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) 


  • Department of Defense reference model for TCP/IP
    • Four layers
  1. Application layer
  2. Transport layer
  3. Internet layer
  4. Network interface layer


Types of Networks

Personal Area Network (PANs) (e.g. bluetooth, infrared, wifi)

Local area networks (LANs) (schools, home, office)

  • ethernet
  • client/server vs. peer-to-peer
  • wireless or Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Metropolitan area networks (MANs)

  • owned by consortium or by a single network provider who sells the service to the users.
  • links to WAN

Wide area networks (WANs)

  • larger coverage than a MAN or global
  • owned by carriers and global telecommunications providers
  • fibre-optic cables, microwave and satellite


internet addressing uses ...

unique IP addresses to every device on the Internet (32-bit number)


purpose of the the Domain Name System (DNS)

  • Converts IP addresses to domain names
  • Hierarchical structure
  • Top-level domains


relationship between severs, clients, and peers (P2P)

Sever: hosts (serve up) data, databases, files, applications, Web sites, video, and other content for access over the network 

Clients consume hosted resources

Peers serve and consume resources, both a server and a client interacting with similar computers


Network Topologies


what is peering

peering is a voluntary interconnection of administratively separate Internet networks for the purpose of exchanging traffic

  • ISPs exchange traffic directly
  • Keeps local traffic within a country or region
  • Traffic does not have to go through a 3rd ISP
  • Based on a commercial agreement. 
  • For example: shared cost model with no settlement for traffic exchanged


different types of physical transmission media

  • Twisted pair wire (CAT5) 
  • Coaxial cable
  • Fiber optics cable
  • Wireless transmission media and devices
    • Satellites
    • Cellular systems


types of transmission speeds

  • Bits per second (bps)
  • Hertz
  • Bandwidth




What are ISPs and types of Internet connections?

Internet Service Providers provide connections

Types of Internet connections

  • Dial-up: 56.6 Kbps
  • Digital subscriber line (DSL/FIOS): 385 Kbps–40 Mbps
  • Cable Internet connections: 1–50 Mbps
  • Satellite
  • T1/T3 lines: 1.54–45 Mbps


Who establishes Internet standards?

Professional organisations and government bodies


The role of the Internet Backbone

The Internet backbone connects to regional networks, which in turn provide access to Internet service providers, large firms, and government institutions.

Network access points (NAPs) and metropolitan area exchanges (MAEs) are hubs where the backbone intersects regional and local networks and where backbone owners connect with one another. 



Network Neutrality

threatened by a tiered service model for online transmission

Broadband access, its ubiquity, ease of access and cost to consumers are important. Operators may be tempted to discriminate in favour of their own services or those of third party partners to the detriment of competitive offerings. 

The most important principle of net neutrality is the idea that internet service providers (ISPs) should give consumers access to all legal content and applications on an equal basis, without favouring some sources or blocking others. 

This is where we start to see a domino effect — a business can’t afford to pay an ISP for premium service, it loses its online audience, it then loses its advertisers and can no longer afford to produce new content. Not only does this scenario stifle competition in the realm of digital content creation, but it also reduces overall digital ad supply while demand remains high. This creates increased competition for advertisers that are already struggling to reach consumers, given the rise of ad-blocking technology. Furthermore, this puts additional pressure on ad networks to maintain premium inventory out of a limited supply.

We could be looking at a sponsored Internet in the future, where the only things Verizon subscribers see is the information those providers want them to see.


The Future Internet: IPv6 and Internet2



  • New addressing scheme for IP numbers
  • Will provide more than a quadrillion new addresses
  • Not compatible with current addressing



  • Advanced networking consortium
  • Universities, businesses, government agencies, other institutions
  • Developed high-capacity 100 Gbps testing network
  • Testing leading-edge new technologies for Internet


examples of Internet Services


  • E-mail
  • Instant messaging
  • Newsgroups
  • VoIP
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • World Wide Web


Client/Server Computing on the Internet


VoIP and VPNs

Voice over IP (VoIP)

  • Digital voice communication using IP, packet switching
  • After the data is scrambled by packet switching, a processor nearest the call’s destination, called a gateway, arranges the packets in the proper order and directs them to the telephone number of the receiver or the IP address of the receiving computer.

Virtual private network (VPN)

  • Secure, encrypted, private network run over Internet
    • PPTP
    • Tunneling