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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (36):
1

Three guiding questions for neuro exam?

1. Is the mental status intact?
2. Are your findings symmetrical?
3. Where is the lesion?

2

Grey Matter

Exterior layer and deep in brain

3

White matter

Myelinated so electrical impulses can travel fast

4

Frontal lobe control what?

Voluntary motor functions, planning, mood, smell, and social judgment

5

Parietal lobe controls what?

Somatosensory reception, taste and integration of sensory information

6

Occipital lobe controls what/

Visual cener

7

Temporal lobe controls what?

hearing, smell, learning, memory, emotions

8

Cerebellum controls what?

Motor coordination

9

For spinal nerves, dorsal root carries what info. and ventral root carries what info?

dorsal-sensory info
ventral- motor info

10

CNS consists of what?

brain, midbrain, spinal cord

11

PNS consists of what?

CN 1-12 and peripheral nerves

12

Motor pathways are?

Upper motor neurons
Lower motor neurons- final common pathway (movement only affected by signals from lower motor neurons)

13

Diabetic patients with small fiber neuropathy report what type of pain? Large fiber neuropathy?

Small fiber neuropathy- sharp, burning, shooting foot pain
Large fiber neuropathy- numbness and tingling or no sensation

14

What does stroke spare the forehead?

Upper face is controlled by pathways from both sides of the cortex and although the upper motor neurons on one side may be destroyed, neurons on the other side will remain

15

Things for stroke prevention

1. control HTN
2. control lipids
3. control DM
4. quit smoking
5. maintain healthy weight
6. exercise

16

Red flags for Headache

1. Age>50
2. stiff neck
3. new, sudden onset of symptoms
4. thunderclap
5. diplopia, photophobia, orbital pain
6. vomiting w/o nausea

17

Red flags for infants

1. floppy baby
2. increased spasticity and tone
3. reappearance/persistent primitive reflexes
4. fisting after 3 months of age
5. slow appearance of postural reflexes
6. no social smile, no stranger anxiety/poor attachments
7. poor sleep and persistent crying

18

Infant exam includes?

1. measure head circumference
2. early or delayed closure of fontanels
3. listen for bruits over cranium
4. opthalmoscopy for red reflex
5. EOMS

19

Preschooler Red flags

1. Neurocutaneous syndromes- tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, sturge-weber disease
2. dominant handedness before 18 months
3. pes cavus- highly arched feet
4. increased irritability or lethargy
5. aggressive behavior, impaired comprehension, memory loss
6. inability to perform series of steps to complete task

20

Preschooler exam includes what?

1. red reflex
2. corneal light reflex
3. EOM
4. motor strength
5. vision
6. hearing

21

Cerebellar function does what?

1. coordinates muscular activity, maintains equilibrium, and controls posture
2. coordination- finger to nose, rapid alternating movements, heel to shin, toe tapping
3. romberg/gait
4. shallow knee bend

22

2 sensory pathways are?

Spinothalamic tract- pain, temp, crude touch
Posterior column- position, vibration, fine touch

23

What are the spinal reflexes?

1. DTRs
2. cutaneous reflexes- bulbocavernous, anal wink, cremastic

24

DTR grading

0- no response
1- low normal, slightly diminished
2- normal
3- more brisk than normal, not necessarily indicative of disease
4- brisk, hyperactive, clonus of tendon associated with disease

25

CN 1

olfactory- sense of smell, sensory

26

CN 2

optic nerve- visual acuity (central vision), gross visual fields (peripheral vision)- sensory

27

CN 3

oculmotor- PERRL; EOM- motor

28

CN 4

trochlear- PERL; EOM- motor

29

CN5

trigeminal- clench teeth- both sensory and motor

30

CN 6

Abducens- PERL; EOM- motor

31

CN 7

facial- 7 facial movements- both sensory and motor

32

CN 8

acoustic- hearing, whisper test- sensory

33

CN 9

glossopharyngeal- say AH- both sensory and motor

34

CN 10

vagus- say AH- both sensory and motor

35

CN 11

spinal accessory- shoulder shrug and head movement against resistance- motor

36

CN 12

hypoglossal- stick out tongue, lingual speech: round the rugged rock the fascal ran- motor