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Week 24 > Neuro-2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro-2 Deck (47)
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1

Prefrontal Cortex

  • 9, 10, 11, 12, 46, 47
  • Complex cognitive behavior
  • decision making
    • solving complex, multi-task problems
  • social behavior
  • personality expression
  • Executive functions:
    • differentiate conflicting thought
    • consequences of action
    • task management
    • social "control"
    • personality
  • Working memory
    • Object-recall task

2

Phineas Gage

  • Railroad worker
  • Rod penetrated L cheek through skull
  • Frontal Lobe injury
  • changed personality and behavior
    • polite before

3

Primary Motor Cortex

  • 4
  • Precentral Gyrus
  • large pyramidal cells project to contralateral motor neurons
  • Somatotopic ogranization
    • Motor Humunculus
      • Medial:
        • Lower extremities
        • Mouth and Face

4

Premotor Cortex

  • 6
  • Anterior to primary motor cortex
  • Receives highly processed sensory information
  • planned movements

5

Frontal Eye Field

  • 8
  • Anterior to premotor cortex
  • Controls voluntary eye movements 

6

Broca's Area 

  • 44, 45
  • Concentrated on the Left hemisphere
    • always located on dominant hemisphere
  • Speech production
    • motor

7

Primary Somatosensory Cortex

  • 1, 2, 3
  • Post central gyrus
  • Conscious awareness of general somatic sensation from oposite side
  • Sensory Homunculus
    • somatotopic organization
      • Lateral: Head and Neck
      • Medial: Truck, Arms, and legs

8

Somatosensory Association cortex

  • 5, 7
  • associates and recognizes sensory inputs then sends to primary somatosensory cortex (1,2,3)

9

Primary Auditory Complex

  • 41, 42
  • superior temporal lobe
  • inside lateral sulcus

10

Auditory Association Area

  • 22
  • Evaluates sounds
  • Wernicke's area (left/dominant side)
    • comprehends spoken language
    •  

11

Gustatory Cortex

  • 43
  • bottom of post central gyrus near lateral sulcus

12

Primary Visual cortex

  • 17
  • calcarine sulcus
  • map of what you see

13

Visual association area

  • 18, 19
  • comprehend what is being seen
    • color, form, movement

14

Olfactory cortex

  • Smell
  • 38?
  • connects to limbic system (emotions)

15

Insula

  • Language
  • balance
  • visceral
  • heart
  • autonomic responses
  • limbic system

16

Cerebral White Matter: types of fibers

  • Commisures
    • connect hemispheres
    • corpus callosum-largest
  • Association fibers
    • connect within the same hemisphere
    • anterior to posterior connection
    • Arcuate fasciculus connects broca's and wernicke area
  • Projection fibers
    • fibers that enter and leave the cerebral hemispheres from lower structures or to them
      • cortex-->caudal areas
      • internal capsule
      • corona radiata

17

Deep Gray Matter

  • Basal Forebrain Nuclei
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Limbic System

18

Basal Forebrain Nuclei

  • Nulcei
    • Nucleus Basalis
    • Medial Spetal Nucleus 
    • Nucleus of Diagnal band
  • Cholinergic system-releases Ach
  • Located anterior and dorsal to hypothalamus
  • Essential part of neuroregulatory system
  • controls behavior
  • Regules arousal and attention
  • involved in:
    • learning memory
    • Alzheimers disease
    • Huntingtons disease (degeneration of basal nuclei and crebral cortex)

19

Basal Ganglia

  • Basal Nuclei:
    • Caudate
    • Putamen
    • Globus Pallidus

 

  • Regulate intensity of voluntary movements (Start/stop)
  • Coordination of learned movement
    • maintaining rather than initiating
    • Precise movements of arms & thighs while you walk
  • Initiated by dopamine (relates to parkinsons)

20

Limbic System

  • Emotion
  • links higher and lower brain functions 
  • helps with memory storage and retrieval

 

  • Amygdala
  • Cingulate Gyrus
  • Hippocampus

21

Amygdala

  • fight or flight response
  • part of limbic system

22

Cingulate Gyrus

  • assigns specific steps to Judge(discern) emotions
  • part of limbic system

23

Hippocampus

  • Part of limbic system
  • located within temporal lobes
  • Consolation of long term memories and sense of time in space
    • consolation-provide comfort

24

Diencephalon

  • Consists of:
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Epithalamus (Pineal gland)
  • Surounds the 3rd ventricle
    • superior wall=thalamus
    • Inferior part of walls & Floor=hypothalamus

25

Thalamus

  • part of diencephalon
  • "inner room"
  • Egg-shaped
  • Forms superolateral wall of 3rd ventricle
  • Gateway to the cortex
  • relay station for sensory information to the cerebral cortex

 

  • VPL
    • General sensor input
    • Ventro-Posterior
  • LGN
    • Lateral-Geniculate Nucleus
    • Visual input
  • MGN
    • Medial-Geniculate Nucleus
    • Auditory input
  • Intralaminar Nucleus

26

Hypothalamus

  • Part of diencephalon
  • Lies below thalamus
  • forms inferolateral walls of 3rd ventricle
  • Visceral control functions:
    • autonomic nervous system
    • emotional responses
    • body temperature
    • Huger & thirst areas
    • sexual behavior
    • sleep-wake cycle (suprachiasmatic nucleus)
  • Communicates with Pituitary gland
    • and endocrine system as a whole

27

Pineal Gland

  • Part of diencephalon (epithalamus)
  • Secretes melatonin
    • regulates sleep-wake cycle

28

Brainstem

  • Composed of:
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla Oblongata
  • Posterior Cranial Fossa
  • Functions:
    • Programmed automatic behavior
      • reflex
    • Passageway between spinal cord and cerebrum

29

Midbrain

  • top 1/3 of brainstem
  • Process Visual/auditory data
  • generates Reflexive somatic motor responses
  • Maintains consciousness
  • Superior Cerebella peduncle
    • connects the midbrain to cerebellum
  • Corpora Quadrigemina
    • Superior Colliculi
      • coordinate head turning and eye movements
    • Inferior Colliculi
      • coordinate movements with auditory stimuli
  • Substantia Nigra
  • Red Nucleus
  • CN 3, 4 (exist medially)

30

Pons

  • Middle 1/3 of brainstem
  • CN 5, 6, 7
  • Pontine Nuclei
    • relay for corticopontine tracts
      • motor input from cortex->pons->cerebellum
  • Middle Cerebellar Peduncle 
    • connects pons to cerebellum
    • pontocerebellar tracts