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Flashcards in Neuro-3 Deck (32)
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1

CSF 

Surrounds and bathes the surfaces of the CNS

  • Buoyancy
    • cushions neural tissue
  • Protection
    • Supports the brain
    • Brain floats in fluid filled container
  • Homeostasis
    • Transports nutrients (glucose, oxygen), chemical messengers, and waste products(CO2)-chemical stability 

2

Location of ventricles

  • Lateral:
    • within cerebral hemispheres
  • Third
    • b/w L & R diencephalon
  • 4th
    • B/w pons/medulla and cerebellum

3

Interventricular Foramen

  • Foramen of Monro 
  • Frontal/Anterior Horn of Lateral ventricle --> 3rd Ventricle

4

Cerebral Aqueduct

  • 3rd Ventricle to 4th Ventricle

5

Choroid Plexus

  • Spongy mass of capillaries surrounded by ependymal cells
  • Produces CSF
  • Found in the:
    • floors of the lateral ventricles
    • Roof of the 3rd ventricle
    • Roof of the 4th ventricle
      • extend btween the cerebellum and pons
  • Contain ependymal cells

6

Ependymal cells

  • Found in choroid plexus
  • Joined together by tight junctions and have ion pumps-controls the composition of the CSF by active transport
  • Form blood-CSF barrier
    • prevents neural tissues from being exposed to blood
  • Controls what comes in and our of the blood
  •  

7

Meninges of the brain

  • Skull
  • Dura Mater (endosteal layer)
    • Dural Sinus
  • Dura Mater (meningeal layer)
    • Subdural Sinus
  • Arachnoid membrane
    • Arachnoid Trabeculae in Subarachnoid Space
  • Pia Mater
    • bound to the surface of the brain by astrocytes (BBB-protect the brain)

8

Hydrocephalus

  • excess CSF builds up within the ventricles of the brain
    • increase P 
  • Caused by:
    • Obstruction
    • Excess CSF production 
    • Decreased reabsorption in the venous system
  • Symptoms in infants
    • larger than normal head size
    • vomiting
    • irritability 
    • sleepiness
  • Impact:
    • Learning difficulties
    • Bad behavior
    • Poor Motivation
    • Vision Problems
    • coordination
    • organizational skills
    • language

9

Lumbar Puncture

L4/5

aka Spinal Tap

10

Blood supply to the brain:

2 sources:

  • Internal Carotid Artery
    • supplies 80% of brain
  • Vertebral Artery
    • supplies 20% of the brain

11

Internal Carotid Artery

  • arise where the comon carotid arteries bifurcate
  • supplies 80% of blood to the brain
  • branc to form the 2 major cerebral arteries:
    • anterior cerebral artery
    • Middle cerebral artery

12

Vertebral Artery

  • Blood supply to posterior brain
    • Branch of subclavian
    • Ascends through foramina of transverse processes
    • rostral 6 cervical vertebral
    • Foramen Magnum
    • Posterior Cranial Fossa
  • Supplies:
    • Ventral Surface of the Medulla
    • Pons
  • Supplies 20% of the brain

13

Vertebral Artery Branches:

  • PICA
    • Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
  • ASA
    • Anterior Spinal Artery
  • PSA
    • Posterior Spinal Artery
  • MA
    • Medullary Arteries

14

PICA

  • Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
  • Biggest Branch of vertebral Artery
  • supplies the:
    • Cerebellum (inferior and posterior)
    • Medulla

15

ASA

  • Anterior Spinal Artery
  • Branch of Vertebral Artery
  • Supplies:
    • Anterior 2/3 of spinal cord

16

PSA

  • Posterior Spinal Artery
  • Branch of Vertebral Artery
  • Supplies:
    • posterior 1/3 of spinal cord

17

MA

  • Medullary Arteries:
  • branch of vertebral artery
  • Distributed to different parts of medulla

18

Vertebral Artery Occlusion symptoms

  • symptoms of Cerebellar or medullary dysfunction

19

Basilar Artery Branches

  • AICA
    • Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
  • PA
    • Pontine Arteries
  • SCA
    • Superior Cerebellar Artery
  • PCA
    • Posterior cerebral artery

20

Blood Supply to Posterior Brain

  • Vertebral Artery
    • PICA
    • ASA
      PSA
    • MA
  • Basilar Artery
    • AICA
    • PA
      SCA
      PCA

21

AICA

  • Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
  • Branch of Basilar Artery
  • supplies:
    • Cerebellum (anterior and inferior)
    • Pons (part)
    • Medulla (part)

22

PA

  • Pontine Arteries
  • Branch of Basilar Artery
  • Distributed to different parts of the pons

23

SCA

  • Superior Cerebellar Artery
  • Branch of basilar artery
  • Supplies:
    • Cerebellum (superior)
    • Pons

24

PCA

  • Posterior cerebral artery
  • Branch of basilar Artery
  • Supplies: Lateral &. MEdial of Anterior Brain
    • Temporal Lobes (inferolateral and medial)
    • Occipital lobe (lateral and medial)
      • Primary Visual cortex
    • Part:
      • thalamus
      • lentiform nucleus
      • midbrain
      • medial geniculate body

25

ACA

  • Anterior Cerebral Artery
  • Branch of internal carotid artery
  • Supplies: (Medial of Anterior Brain)
    • Medial Surface of cerebral hemispheres
    • Frontal Lobe (Anterior/superior)
      • primary motor cortex
    • Parietal lobe (Anterior/superior)
      • primary somatosensory cortex
    • Basal Ganglia (anterior)
    • Internal Capsule (anterior)
    • Corpus Callosum (Anterior)

26

MCA

  • Middle Cerebral Artery
  • Branch of internal carotid artery
  • Supplies: Lateral of Anterior Brain
    • Cerebral hemispheres (lateral)
      • Frontal lobe
        • Brocas
        • Primary Motor Cortex
      • Parietal Lobe
        • Primary somatosensory cortex
      • Superolateral temporal lobe
        • Wernickes area
    • Posterior Limb of internal capsule
    • Basal ganglia (part)

27

Blood supply to the anterior brain

  • Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA)
  • Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA)
  • Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA)
  • Opthalmic artery
  • Posterior Communicating Artery
  • Anterior Choroidal artery

28

Opthalmic artery

  • supply anterior brain
  • enters orbit through the optic canal
  • supplies
    • eye
    • retina (Neural element)
    • optic nerve (neural element)

29

Anterior Choroidal Artery

  • Terminates in the choroid plexus of lateral ventricle

30

What contributes to the circle of willis?

  • Internal carotid
  • Vertebral arteries
  • Anterior Communicating artery
  • Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA)
  • Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA)
  • Posterior Communicating Artery
  • Posterior Cerebral artery (PCA)
  • Basilar Artery