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Flashcards in Neuro Development Deck (59)
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1

First, the brain establishes__?

distinct brain regions

2

second, the neuroprogenitor cells differentiate to?

neurons or glia

3

much of the brain development is during

the first trimester

4

when does myelination begin?

postnatally... remember babinski sign in babies

5

four expansions of the neural tube

prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon, spinal cord

6

prosencephalon separates to make __ and __

telencephalon and diencephalon

7

rhombencephalon separates to make __ AND __

metencephalon, myelencephalon

8

telencephalon becomes what three things

paleocortex, corpus striatum, neocortex

9

diencephalon becomes what four things

epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, indifundibulum

10

mesencephalon becomes what three things

tectum, tegmentum, cerebral peduncles

11

rhombic lip significance

lip of the hindbrain; this is where the cerbellum begins to develop

12

tectum is?

roof of midbrain

13

REMEMBER: neural plate makes two parts

the neural crest and the neural tube

14

name a few things that are responsible for the molecular signals that induce cell and tissue differentiation

notochord, somites, ectoderm, and floorplate

15

what is the floorplate?

it is the ventral section of the neural tube (the side that is close to the notocord) it apparently guides the motor neurons to the correct location

16

lamina terminalis is from what part of the embryo

anterior part of the neural tube that zips together

17

name the three flexures during the developing brain

cephalic flexure, pontine flexure, cervical flexure

18

name of brain segments

rhombomeres!! little clumps of the nervous system

19

does everything come from a rhombomere?

nope. but usually in the neural tube, and especially in the medulla. these little areas have their own little nerves and pathways that develop from them.

20

what is the adult result of rhombomeres

you can see the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal nerves come out and clump together. this is because of the rhombomeres

21

sulcus limitans

area that separates the alar and basilar plates

22

what is the roof plate?

that is the dorsal plate of the neural tube; it separates the left and right alar plates

23

there is a neural tube and pial surface with neurons in between. where does the neuroblast divide?

near the neural tube.

24

how would you study where a neuroprogenitor cell goes?

you can use birthdating. inject them with a marker and see where they go. if the cell keeps dividing, you won't see them as well, but if they stop dividing, then you will very clearly see where they are.

25

what layer of the cortex is the newest/freshest

in the telencephalon, its the cortex, layer 1. in the diencephalon, its opposite

26

what kind of glial cell comes from neural crest

schwaan cells

27

what glial cell helps the neurons migrate?

radial glial cell

28

anencephaly/merocephaly is from?

defect in the anterior neuropore (adult lamina terminalis)

29

holoprosencephaly

filure of midline cleavage of embryonic forebrain; in trisomy 13, can be associated with fetal alcohol syndrome and agenesis of corpus callosum

30

arnold-chiari syndrome

herniation of cbellar tonsils into the foramen magnum; crushes the developing medulla and can cause a cavitation of the medulla