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Flashcards in Neuro Development Deck (59):
1

First, the brain establishes__?

distinct brain regions

2

second, the neuroprogenitor cells differentiate to?

neurons or glia

3

much of the brain development is during

the first trimester

4

when does myelination begin?

postnatally... remember babinski sign in babies

5

four expansions of the neural tube

prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon, spinal cord

6

prosencephalon separates to make __ and __

telencephalon and diencephalon

7

rhombencephalon separates to make __ AND __

metencephalon, myelencephalon

8

telencephalon becomes what three things

paleocortex, corpus striatum, neocortex

9

diencephalon becomes what four things

epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, indifundibulum

10

mesencephalon becomes what three things

tectum, tegmentum, cerebral peduncles

11

rhombic lip significance

lip of the hindbrain; this is where the cerbellum begins to develop

12

tectum is?

roof of midbrain

13

REMEMBER: neural plate makes two parts

the neural crest and the neural tube

14

name a few things that are responsible for the molecular signals that induce cell and tissue differentiation

notochord, somites, ectoderm, and floorplate

15

what is the floorplate?

it is the ventral section of the neural tube (the side that is close to the notocord) it apparently guides the motor neurons to the correct location

16

lamina terminalis is from what part of the embryo

anterior part of the neural tube that zips together

17

name the three flexures during the developing brain

cephalic flexure, pontine flexure, cervical flexure

18

name of brain segments

rhombomeres!! little clumps of the nervous system

19

does everything come from a rhombomere?

nope. but usually in the neural tube, and especially in the medulla. these little areas have their own little nerves and pathways that develop from them.

20

what is the adult result of rhombomeres

you can see the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal nerves come out and clump together. this is because of the rhombomeres

21

sulcus limitans

area that separates the alar and basilar plates

22

what is the roof plate?

that is the dorsal plate of the neural tube; it separates the left and right alar plates

23

there is a neural tube and pial surface with neurons in between. where does the neuroblast divide?

near the neural tube.

24

how would you study where a neuroprogenitor cell goes?

you can use birthdating. inject them with a marker and see where they go. if the cell keeps dividing, you won't see them as well, but if they stop dividing, then you will very clearly see where they are.

25

what layer of the cortex is the newest/freshest

in the telencephalon, its the cortex, layer 1. in the diencephalon, its opposite

26

what kind of glial cell comes from neural crest

schwaan cells

27

what glial cell helps the neurons migrate?

radial glial cell

28

anencephaly/merocephaly is from?

defect in the anterior neuropore (adult lamina terminalis)

29

holoprosencephaly

filure of midline cleavage of embryonic forebrain; in trisomy 13, can be associated with fetal alcohol syndrome and agenesis of corpus callosum

30

arnold-chiari syndrome

herniation of cbellar tonsils into the foramen magnum; crushes the developing medulla and can cause a cavitation of the medulla

31

syringomyelia and syringobulbia

"bulbar" refers to brain stem. look up specifics

32

myeloschisis

this is a posterior neural tube defect

33

neural crest cells can become

melanocytes, connective tissue, pseudopolar ganglia of spinal and cranial nerves, chromaffin cells (adrenal medulla), peripheral glia, leptomeninges, multipolar ganglion cells ans

34

embryonic origin of chorioid plexus

blood born mesenchymal tissue that goes to the brain

35

REMEMBER: what will a somite become

has a dermatome part (skin); scelerotome (vertebrae); and myotome (muscles)

36

what does a placode have to do with placode

ectoderm that mixes with neural crest cells to become cranial nerve ganglia

37

ventricle of prosencephalon

lateral ventricles

38

dandy-walker syndrome

agenesis of corpus callosum; cerebellar aplasia; enlarged 4th ventricle; from riboflavin inhibitors, posterior fossa trauma or viral infection

39

internal capsule is always between??

thalamus and basal ganglia. even during development

40

once the brainstem splits open, what happens to the alar plate?

it moves laterally

41

CNs with GVE

3, 7, 9, 10.

42

embryonic origin of substantia nigra

alar column

43

direction of diencephalon development

the first cells born, ride the radial glial cell to the farthest edge of the diencephalong. this directionality is opposite from the telencephalon

44

tangental migrations involved in

cortex develoipment; usually these cells are GABAergic

45

lissencephaly

gyri fail to form in cerebral cortex; smooth brain surface

46

heterotopia

disrupted migration of cerebral cortex

47

reelin

influences detachment of a newly born cell from a radial glial cell

48

flexure of the rhombic lip

pontine

49

three layers of the cerebellum

the inner layer is the inner granular layer; then is the purkinje cells, then is the molecular layer

50

where does the internal granular layer come from

originally it is a layer of cells from the midbrain. they cover the cerebellum and then the cells jump on the radial glial cells and migrate INWARD.

51

where do the purkinje cells come from

they are made in the ventricular zone and then they get on the radial glia and migrate OUTWARD;

52

medulloblastoma

a tumor because the granular cells are never turned off

53

netrin vs semaphorin

netrin is attractive to axons; semaphorins are repulsive

54

beaded axon is

usually its an axon that expresses peptides; it has tons of synapses along the axon

55

when are neurons programmed to go to a certain location?

before they even leave, they know where to go

56

you produce synapses during ____; and you get rid of the unneccessary ones during ____

development and childhood; teen years

57

trophic factor regulates what three steps

1) match the number of neurons to the available space on the target
2) make sure that the pre and post synaptic neurons match NT types)
3) stabalized the connections between axon and the target

58

climbing fiber relationship to purkinge fibers

there is only ONE climbing fiber per purkinje fiber

59

Cells that fire together____

wire together; basically, if yo use the synapse, it stays