Flashcards in Neuro Development Deck (59)
First, the brain establishes__?
distinct brain regions
second, the neuroprogenitor cells differentiate to?
neurons or glia
much of the brain development is during
the first trimester
when does myelination begin?
postnatally... remember babinski sign in babies
four expansions of the neural tube
prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon, spinal cord
prosencephalon separates to make __ and __
telencephalon and diencephalon
rhombencephalon separates to make __ AND __
telencephalon becomes what three things
paleocortex, corpus striatum, neocortex
diencephalon becomes what four things
epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, indifundibulum
mesencephalon becomes what three things
tectum, tegmentum, cerebral peduncles
rhombic lip significance
lip of the hindbrain; this is where the cerbellum begins to develop
roof of midbrain
REMEMBER: neural plate makes two parts
the neural crest and the neural tube
name a few things that are responsible for the molecular signals that induce cell and tissue differentiation
notochord, somites, ectoderm, and floorplate
what is the floorplate?
it is the ventral section of the neural tube (the side that is close to the notocord) it apparently guides the motor neurons to the correct location
lamina terminalis is from what part of the embryo
anterior part of the neural tube that zips together
name the three flexures during the developing brain
cephalic flexure, pontine flexure, cervical flexure
name of brain segments
rhombomeres!! little clumps of the nervous system
does everything come from a rhombomere?
nope. but usually in the neural tube, and especially in the medulla. these little areas have their own little nerves and pathways that develop from them.
what is the adult result of rhombomeres
you can see the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal nerves come out and clump together. this is because of the rhombomeres
area that separates the alar and basilar plates
what is the roof plate?
that is the dorsal plate of the neural tube; it separates the left and right alar plates
there is a neural tube and pial surface with neurons in between. where does the neuroblast divide?
near the neural tube.
how would you study where a neuroprogenitor cell goes?
you can use birthdating. inject them with a marker and see where they go. if the cell keeps dividing, you won't see them as well, but if they stop dividing, then you will very clearly see where they are.
what layer of the cortex is the newest/freshest
in the telencephalon, its the cortex, layer 1. in the diencephalon, its opposite
what kind of glial cell comes from neural crest
what glial cell helps the neurons migrate?
radial glial cell
anencephaly/merocephaly is from?
defect in the anterior neuropore (adult lamina terminalis)
filure of midline cleavage of embryonic forebrain; in trisomy 13, can be associated with fetal alcohol syndrome and agenesis of corpus callosum