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Flashcards in Neuro- Seizures Deck (11):
1

What is Epilepsy

• Recurrent seizures

NOTE:
Epilepsy is a group of neurological diseases characterized by epileptic seizures.[1][2] Epileptic seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable to long periods of vigorous shaking.[3] In epilepsy, seizures tend to recur, and have no immediate underlying cause[1] while seizures that occur due to a specific cause are not deemed to represent epilepsy.[4]

2

What is a 2* seizure

It is provoked by something else. Like going to the discotheque.

NOTE: Often has a generalized known underlying cause (a factor that triggers a discharge) Sometimes genetic component

3

Common triggers of a seizure

• Febrile (referring to fever, common in children)
• Metabolism related
• Hypoglycemia
• Hypoxia
• Electrolyte imbalance

4

Etiology of unprovoked seizure?

Unprovoked
• Idiopathic
• Genetic??

5

Are seizures a disease

- not a disease it’s a mnfts of another disease
- sudden, uncontrolled neural discharge→ altered sensation, altered movements, altered behaviour
- mnfts vary according to site of discharge

6

Types or Classification of seizures

1) partial seizures: meaning the focal origin/start is in one hemisphere
a) simple partial seizure no loss of consciousness
b) complex partial loss of consciousness

2) generalized seizures: meaning the origin is in both hemispheres

7

Pathology of seizures?

How will it spread? and how does it stop?

• “epileptogenic focus” in cerebral cortex & hippocampus triggered discharge with inc amplitude and frequency -> Spreads to other areas

• normal neuronal inhibition blocked-> abn muscle action and LOC

• inhibitory neurons ultimately control discharge and the seizure ends

• Just before end of seizure will be intermittent contraction and relaxation phase

8

What is the post-ictal phase?

AKA post seizure

• Epileptogenic cells completely inhibited
• CNS depressed

9

Complications of seizure?

• Inc brain activity req more ATP -> inc 02 and glucose demand -> perfusion to brain not adeq -> hypoxia and lactic acidosis -> brain damage

Especially if the seizure last a long time

10

Dx of epilepsy

• Hx
• Neuro exam (reflex and cranial nerves?)
• Underlying cause! (The key)

11

Tx During, STAT after and Later on

• During: protect from injury
• Stat after: ensure brain fx (resps, airway, all lifesaving measures)
• Later
o Underlying cause
o Anticonvulsant drugs
o Sx if drug fails