Flashcards in Neuro- Seizures Deck (11):
What is Epilepsy
• Recurrent seizures
Epilepsy is a group of neurological diseases characterized by epileptic seizures. Epileptic seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable to long periods of vigorous shaking. In epilepsy, seizures tend to recur, and have no immediate underlying cause while seizures that occur due to a specific cause are not deemed to represent epilepsy.
What is a 2* seizure
It is provoked by something else. Like going to the discotheque.
NOTE: Often has a generalized known underlying cause (a factor that triggers a discharge) Sometimes genetic component
Common triggers of a seizure
• Febrile (referring to fever, common in children)
• Metabolism related
• Electrolyte imbalance
Etiology of unprovoked seizure?
Are seizures a disease
- not a disease it’s a mnfts of another disease
- sudden, uncontrolled neural discharge→ altered sensation, altered movements, altered behaviour
- mnfts vary according to site of discharge
Types or Classification of seizures
1) partial seizures: meaning the focal origin/start is in one hemisphere
a) simple partial seizure no loss of consciousness
b) complex partial loss of consciousness
2) generalized seizures: meaning the origin is in both hemispheres
Pathology of seizures?
How will it spread? and how does it stop?
• “epileptogenic focus” in cerebral cortex & hippocampus triggered discharge with inc amplitude and frequency -> Spreads to other areas
• normal neuronal inhibition blocked-> abn muscle action and LOC
• inhibitory neurons ultimately control discharge and the seizure ends
• Just before end of seizure will be intermittent contraction and relaxation phase
What is the post-ictal phase?
AKA post seizure
• Epileptogenic cells completely inhibited
• CNS depressed
Complications of seizure?
• Inc brain activity req more ATP -> inc 02 and glucose demand -> perfusion to brain not adeq -> hypoxia and lactic acidosis -> brain damage
Especially if the seizure last a long time
Dx of epilepsy
• Neuro exam (reflex and cranial nerves?)
• Underlying cause! (The key)