Neuro - Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions Flashcards Preview

SP14 - Human Anatomy Exam 1 > Neuro - Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro - Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions Deck (28):
1

Identify the location of the preganglionic and postganglionic nerve cell bodies in the sympathetic division of the ANS. What are the neurotransmitters in each for the sympathetic division?

- preganglionic neuron cell body - lateral horn of T1-L2 with acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter
- postganglionic neuron cell body - sympathetic ganglia with norephinephrine as its neurotransmitter

2

What are the courses of the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the ANS?

- preganglionic neuron - cell body of origin located in CNS and terminates in the ganglion
- postganglionic neuron - terminates in the target tissue

3

Identify the location of the preganglionic and postganglionic nerve cell bodies in the parasympathetic division of the ANS. What are the neurotransmitters in each for the parasympathetic division?

- preganglionic neuron cell body - brainstem autonomic nuclei and the saccral cord with acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter
- postganglionic neuron cell body - parasympathetic ganglia in the wall of viscera with acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter

4

List the cranial and spinal nerves that carry sympathetic fibers.

lateral horn of spinal cord levels T1-L2 (thoracolumbar)

5

List the cranial and spinal nerves that carry parasympathetic fibers.

CN III (occulomotor), VII (facial), IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus), and lateral horn of sacral cord S2-S4 (craniosacral)

6

Identify the levels of the neuraxis that contain preganglionic sympathetic nerve cell bodies.

T1-L2

7

Identify the intermediolateral cell column (lateral horn).

place of the sympathetic preganglionic nerve cell body

8

By what route do sympathetic fibers reach the cranium (and cranial nerves)? Are these pre- or postganglionic fibers?

preganglionic nerve cell bodies in T1-L2 have axons that go to the paravertebral (chain) ganglion, prevertebral (collateral) ganglion, and adrenal medulla; postganglionic nerve fibers then reach the head via cervical ganglia and the carotid plexus

9

What effect does sympathetic activation have on pupil diameter?

dilates pupils

10

What effect does sympathetic activation have on blood vessel diameter?

constricts blood vessels

11

What effect does sympathetic activation have on salivation?

increase salivation

12

What effect does sympathetic activation have on the bronchi?

dilates the bronchioles

13

What effect does sympathetic activation have on the heart rate?

increases rate and force of contraction

14

Describe Horner syndrome and list/describe the resulting conditions.

- a loss of sympathetic innervation to the face
- symptoms:
- ptosis - eyelid droop (superior tarsal muscle)
- miosis - small pupil
- endophthalmos - apparent sunken eye
- anhydrosis - dry skin
- heterochromia - eyes are each a different color (if Horner syndrome before 2 years of age)

15

Describe the enteric nervous system (purpose, plexuses, etc.).

- provides innervation for intestinal tract, pancreas, and gall bladder
- neural plexus between layers of muscle and endothelium in the intestinal tract
- myenteric plaxus (of Auerbach)
- submucous plexus (of Meissner)
- provides primary control of motility and secretion

16

Identify the levels of the neuraxis that contain preganglionic parasympathetic nerve cell bodies.

brainstem autonomic nuclei (midbrain, pons, and medulla) and sacral cord (S2-S4)

17

By what route do parasympathetic fibers reach the thorax and abdomen? Are these pre- or postganglionic fibers?

- vagus preganglionic nerve cell bodies in dorsal motor nucleus and nucleus ambiguous have axons that travel with other vagus nerve fibers that terminate in the wall of the target tissue (which is the location of the postganglionic nerve cell bodies)
- sacral preganglionic nerve cell bodies in the lateral horn of S2-S4 exit within the ventral root and course within splanchnic nerves and terminate in the wall of target tissue (which is the location of the postganglionic nerve cell bodies)

18

What effect does parasympathetic activation have on pupil diameter?

pupil consticts

19

What effect does parasympathetic activation have on salivation?

salivation increases

20

What effect does parasympathetic activation have on heart rate?

decreases rate and force of contraction

21

What is effect produced by the parasympathetic fibers of CN III (occulomotor)?

- pupilary constictor muscle fibers decrease pupil diameter (pupilary reflex)
- ciliary muscle accommodates lens for near vision

22

What is effect produced by the parasympathetic fibers of CN VII (facial)?

- nasal and lacrimal glands produce lacrimation
- submandibular and sublingual salivary glands produce a thin, watery mucous

23

What is effect produced by the parasympathetic fibers of CN IX (glossopharyngeal)?

parotid salivary gland produces a thin, watery mucous

24

What is effect produced by the parasympathetic fibers of CN X (vagus)?

- reduces heart rate and blood pressure
- increases gastric secretion and peristaltic activity

25

What is effect produced by the parasympathetic fibers of the sacral cord S2-S4?

increases intestinal secretion and peristaltic activity

26

List the sympathetic pathway of the pupillary reflex.

lateral horn -> paravertebral chain ganglion -> superior cervical ganglion -> carotid plexus -> eye (?)

27

List the sympathetic pathway for salivation.

lateral horn -> paravertebral chain ganglion -> superior cervical ganglion -> carotid plexus -> glands (?)

28

List the sympathetic pathway to the bronchi.

lateral horn -> paravertebral chain ganglion -> inferior (stellate) cervical ganglion -> brachial plexus