Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (46):
What paired structure lies immediately medial to the putamen ?
What is the sea shell shaped structure in the brain ?
Hippocampus in the temporal lobe
Which structure is more rostral - optic chiasm or mammillary bodies ?
What cerebellar peduncles connect the pons to the cerebellum ?
Middle cerebellar peduncles
What cerebellar peduncles connect the midbrain to the cerebellum ?
Superior cerebellar peduncles
What cerebellar peduncles connect the medulla to the cerebellum ?
Inferior cerebellar peduncles
What fluid is produced in the ventricular system ?
Which structures of the ventricular system are connected by the interventricular foramen ?
The lateral and third ventricles
What is the interthalamic adhesion and where is it ?
It's a gap between the third ventricles which had fibres passing through it to connect both sides of the thalamus
What is the clinical term for a rise in intracranial pressure due to obstruction of CSF ?
What 2 structures does the cerebral aqueduct lie underneath ?
Runs the length of the BRAINSTEM underneath the inferior and superior colliculi
Where does the cerebral aqueduct open into 3rd ventricle ?
Junction between the midbrain and forebrain
What structures form the lateral walls of the 3rd ventricle ?
Thalamus and hypothalamus
What secretes CSF?
What is another name for interventricular foramen ?
Foramen of monro
At what level of the brain does the central canal open into the 4th ventricle ?
What is the function of cerebral aqueduct ?
To connect the 3rd and 4th ventricles
Where are sensory neuron ganglions in the spinal cord ?
Where are interneurons in the spinal cord ?
In the spinal cord where are you most likely to find large neuronal cell bodies ?
Ventral horn which contains the motor neurons
What neurons are present in the lateral column ?
Post ganglionic sympathetic neurons
Which level of the spinal cord is the lateral horn seen most clearly ?
Which tracts arise in the red nucleus and tectum and what one lies most dorsally ?
Rubrospinal tract from red nucleus and tectospinal tract from superior colliculus
Rubrospinal tract lies most dorsally
Rubrospinal - controls the tone of limb flexor muscles
Tectospinal - thought to mediate reflex movement in response to visual stimuli
What is the fasiculus cuneatus and fasiculus gracilis?
They are dorsal column tracts which carry info about proprioception and discriminative touch
Gracilis- join spinal cord at sacral, lumbar, and lower thoracic levels
Cuneatus- join spinal cord at upper thoracic and cervical levels
Carry info from ipsilateral side of the body
Which lies more laterally, fasiculus cuneatus or fasiculus gracilis ?
What structures make up the basal ganglia ?
Caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus
Which electrodes in an EEG are positioned closest to the visual cortex ?
O1 and O2
When would you expect to see beta waves ?
When you are awake and during REM sleep
Which waves out of alpha and delta waves have the largest amplitude ?
Why do delta waves have a larger amplitude ?
Because these waves are more active when you are sleeping so the firing is more consistent so they are more synchronised and therefore the waves can join together to create a bigger amplitude
What types of clinical uses does the EEG have ?
Diagnosis of sporadic CJD - rare and fatal brain condition that causes brain damage to get worse and worse - due to an abnormal prion protein
Diagnosis of epilepsy
Diagnosis of brain death
What are the cranial nerves in order ?
Which cranial nerves enter/exit the pons(pons/medulla boundary) ?
Abducens, facial, vestibuilocochlear and trigeminal
Which cranial nerves enter/exit the midbrain ?
Occulomotor and trochlear
Which cranial nerve exits on the dorsal surface ?
Which cranial nerves have both afferent and efferent branches ?
Which nerve would be used to carry info relating to very sweet food ?
Which cranial nerve is used to carry info relating to bitter food ?
Which cranial nerve is used to control chewing ?
What is the function of the pons ?
Connection between cerebrum and cerebellum involved in coordination of movements
What is the function of the medulla ?
Peripheral control centre and origination of seven cranial nerves
What does hemiplegia mean ?
An inability to move one side
What are the clinical consequences of left optic tract lesion ?
Homonymous hemianopia- loss of sight in the right visual fields from both eyes
What are the common causes of hemiballismus ?
Lesion, stroke or tumour
What are common causes of upper motor neurons disease ?
Stoke or spinal cord transection