Neuroanatomy Flashcards Preview

Neurobiology > Neuroanatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (46):
0

What paired structure lies immediately medial to the putamen ?

Globus pallidus

1

What is the sea shell shaped structure in the brain ?

Hippocampus in the temporal lobe

2

Which structure is more rostral - optic chiasm or mammillary bodies ?

Optic chiasm

3

What cerebellar peduncles connect the pons to the cerebellum ?

Middle cerebellar peduncles

4

What cerebellar peduncles connect the midbrain to the cerebellum ?

Superior cerebellar peduncles

5

What cerebellar peduncles connect the medulla to the cerebellum ?

Inferior cerebellar peduncles

6

What fluid is produced in the ventricular system ?

Cerebrospinal fluid

7

Which structures of the ventricular system are connected by the interventricular foramen ?

The lateral and third ventricles

8

What is the interthalamic adhesion and where is it ?

It's a gap between the third ventricles which had fibres passing through it to connect both sides of the thalamus

9

What is the clinical term for a rise in intracranial pressure due to obstruction of CSF ?

Hydrocephalus

10

What 2 structures does the cerebral aqueduct lie underneath ?

Runs the length of the BRAINSTEM underneath the inferior and superior colliculi

11

Where does the cerebral aqueduct open into 3rd ventricle ?

Junction between the midbrain and forebrain

12

What structures form the lateral walls of the 3rd ventricle ?

Thalamus and hypothalamus

13

What secretes CSF?

Choroid plexus

14

What is another name for interventricular foramen ?

Foramen of monro

15

At what level of the brain does the central canal open into the 4th ventricle ?

Medulla

16

What is the function of cerebral aqueduct ?

To connect the 3rd and 4th ventricles

17

Where are sensory neuron ganglions in the spinal cord ?

Dorsal root

18

Where are interneurons in the spinal cord ?

Dorsal horn

19

In the spinal cord where are you most likely to find large neuronal cell bodies ?

Ventral horn which contains the motor neurons

20

What neurons are present in the lateral column ?

Post ganglionic sympathetic neurons

21

Which level of the spinal cord is the lateral horn seen most clearly ?

Thoracic

22

Which tracts arise in the red nucleus and tectum and what one lies most dorsally ?

Rubrospinal tract from red nucleus and tectospinal tract from superior colliculus
Rubrospinal tract lies most dorsally
Rubrospinal - controls the tone of limb flexor muscles
Tectospinal - thought to mediate reflex movement in response to visual stimuli

23

What is the fasiculus cuneatus and fasiculus gracilis?

They are dorsal column tracts which carry info about proprioception and discriminative touch
Gracilis- join spinal cord at sacral, lumbar, and lower thoracic levels
Cuneatus- join spinal cord at upper thoracic and cervical levels
Carry info from ipsilateral side of the body

24

Which lies more laterally, fasiculus cuneatus or fasiculus gracilis ?

Fasiculus cuneatus

25

What structures make up the basal ganglia ?

Caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus

26

Which electrodes in an EEG are positioned closest to the visual cortex ?

O1 and O2

27

When would you expect to see beta waves ?

When you are awake and during REM sleep

28

Which waves out of alpha and delta waves have the largest amplitude ?

Delta

29

Why do delta waves have a larger amplitude ?

Because these waves are more active when you are sleeping so the firing is more consistent so they are more synchronised and therefore the waves can join together to create a bigger amplitude

30

What types of clinical uses does the EEG have ?

Diagnosis of sporadic CJD - rare and fatal brain condition that causes brain damage to get worse and worse - due to an abnormal prion protein
Diagnosis of epilepsy
Diagnosis of brain death

31

What are the cranial nerves in order ?

1- olfactory
2- optic
3- oculomotor
4- trochlear
5- trigeminal
6- abducens
7- facial
8- vestibulocochlear
9-glossopharyngeal
10-vagus
11-accessory
12- hypoglossal

32

Which cranial nerves enter/exit the pons(pons/medulla boundary) ?

Abducens, facial, vestibuilocochlear and trigeminal

33

Which cranial nerves enter/exit the midbrain ?

Occulomotor and trochlear

34

Which cranial nerve exits on the dorsal surface ?

Trochlear

35

Which cranial nerves have both afferent and efferent branches ?

Trigeminal
Facial
Glossopharyngeal
Vagus

36

Which nerve would be used to carry info relating to very sweet food ?

Facial

37

Which cranial nerve is used to carry info relating to bitter food ?

Glossopharyngeal

38

Which cranial nerve is used to control chewing ?

Trigeminal

39

What is the function of the pons ?

Connection between cerebrum and cerebellum involved in coordination of movements

40

What is the function of the medulla ?

Peripheral control centre and origination of seven cranial nerves

41

What does hemiplegia mean ?

An inability to move one side

42

What are the clinical consequences of left optic tract lesion ?

Homonymous hemianopia- loss of sight in the right visual fields from both eyes

43

What are the common causes of hemiballismus ?

Lesion, stroke or tumour

44

What are common causes of upper motor neurons disease ?

Stoke or spinal cord transection

45

What are the causes of Trigeminal neuralgia ?!

Pain in territory of one or more major subdivisions of trigeminal nerve caused by underlying osteitis of petrous temporal bone, compression of sensory nerve or unknown cause