Neuroanatomy, Neurophysiology, and Behavior PMHNP Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuroanatomy, Neurophysiology, and Behavior PMHNP Deck (74)
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1

What is? The basic cellular unit of the nervous system, the microprocessor of the brain responsible for conducting impulses from one part of the body to another

The Neuron ("Nerve Cells")

2

What is? Also known as soma; made up of the nucleus and cytoplasm within cell membrane

Cell body

3

What is? Transmits signals away from the neuron's cell body to connect with other neurons and cells

Stem or axon

4

What is? Collect incoming signals from other neurons and send the signal toward the neuron's cell body

Dendrites

5

What is? Composed of two separate, interconnected divisions. What are they called?

Nervous system: Central Nervous system and Peripheral nervous system

6

What is? Composed of the spinal cord and the brain

Central Nervous system

7

What is? Composed of the peripheral nerves that connect the CNS to receptors, muscles, and glands. Includes the cranial nerves just outside the brain stem. Comprises the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

Peripheral nervous system

8

What is? Conveys information from the CNS to skeletal muscles; responsible for voluntary movement

Somatic nervous system

9

What is? Regulates internal body functions to maintain homeostasis; conveys information form the CNS to smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands; responsible for involuntary movement.

Autonomic nervous system

10

What is? Divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

Autonomic nervous system

11

What is? The excitatory division ; prepares the body for stress (fight or flight); stimulates or increases activity of organs

Sympathetic nervous system

12

What is? Maintains or restores energy; inhibits or decreases activity of organs.

Parasympathetic nervous system

13

What is? Either categorized as white or gray matter?

Brain tissue

14

What is? composed of nerve cell bodies and dendrites; it is the working area of the brain and contains the synapses, the area of neuronal connection

Gray matter

15

What is? the myelinated axons of neurons

White matter

16

What is? Structured to contain grooves and dips of corrugated wrinkles within the brain tissue that provide anatomic landmarks or reference points.

Outermost surface of the brain

17

What is? Small shallow grooves in the outermost surface of the brain

Sulci

18

What is? Deeper groves extending into the brain

Fissures

19

What is? The raised tissue areas of the outermost surface of the brain

Gyri

20

What is? The brain subdivided into

Cerebrum and the brainstem

21

What is? The largest part of the brain, which is divided into two halves, the right and left hemispheres.

Cerebrum

22

What is? This hemisphere of the cerebrum is dominant in most people

Left hemisphere

23

What is? This hemisphere of the cerebrum controls the left sided body functions

Right hemisphere

24

What is? Both hemispheres connected by a large bundle of white matter, an area of sensorimotor information exchange between the two hemispheres

Corpus callosum

25

Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is divided into how many lobes?

four

26

What is? Largest and most developed lobe of the cerebrum

frontal lobe

27

What is? Frontal lobe location that is Responsible for controlling voluntary motor activity of specific muscles

motor function

28

What is? Frontal lobe location that Coordinates movement of multiple muscles

premotor area

29

What is? Frontal lobe location that Allows for multimodel sensory input to trigger memory and lead to decision-making

Association cortex

30

What is? Frontal lobe location of Working memory, reasoning, planning, prioritizing, sequencing behavior, insight, flexibility, judgment, impulse control, behavioral cueing, intelligence, abstraction

Seat of executive functions