Flashcards in Neurobiology Deck (28):
Fxn of medulla?
- regulates respiration, HR, bp
Fxn of the pons?
- regulates sleep-wake cycles
Fxn of the cerebellum?
- regulates reflexes and balance
- coordinates movement
Fxn of the thalamus?
- major sensory relay center
- regulates higher brain centers and PNS
Fxn of the hypothalamus?
- emotion and motivation
- stress reactions
Limbic system components and fxns?
- hippocampus: formation of new memories
- amygdala: governs emotions related to self preservation
- in depression - amygdala revved - a lot of activity, why you have to taper meds and not just d/c them rapidly
Components and fxns of the cerebral cortex?
- occiptal lobe: receives and processes visual info
- temporal lobe: smell, hearing, balance and equilibrium, emotion and motivation, some language comprehension, complex visual processing
- parietal lobe: sensory projection and association areas, visual/spatial abilities
Fxn of the frontal lobe?
- goal directed behavior
- emotional control and temperament
- motor projection and assoc areas
- coordinates messages from other lobes
- complex problem solving
- involved in many aspects of personality
- prefrontal: involved in depression and bipolar
What are NTs?
- chemicals that transmit messages from neuron to neuron
- about 50 id'd
- can excite or inhibit
- each NT directly or indirectly influences neurons in specific portions of the brain, thereby affecting behavior
Common excitatory NTs?
Common inhibitory NTs?
Fxn of Ach? Malfxn?
- fxn: muscle action, learning, memory
- malfxn: dementia, alzheimers
Fxn of dopamine? Malfxn?
- fxn: movement, learning, attention, emotion, motivation as well as mood
- malfxn: too much = schizo
- too little = depression or parkinson's
Fxn of serotonin? Malfxn?
- fxn: mood, hunger, sleep, general level of arousal
- malfxn: not enough = depression
too much = mania
Fxn of NE? Malfxn?
- fxn: alertness, arousal
- malfxn: not enough = depression
Fxn of GABA?
- inhibitory (block nerve impulses), dials down brain activity
- if not enough can lead to seizures, tremors, or insomnia
Fxn of Glutamate?
- too much would over stimulate the brain and could lead to seizures
How do transmitters work (stepwise)?
- nerve impulse travels from 1st neuron to another through axon to axon terminal and synaptic knob
- each knob communicates with dendrite or cell body of another neuron
- the knobs contain neurovesicles that stores and release NTs
- the nerve impulse travels through the axon until it eventually reachs the presynaptic membrane
- presynaptic membrane contains NTs to be released in the synaptic cleft
- freely flowing NT molecules are picked up by receptors located in the post synaptic membrane of another neuron
- once the NT is picked up by the receptors in the post synpatic membrane the molecule is internalized in the neuron and the impulse continues
- the normal flow of the NT is from the presynaptic membrane to the receptors on the post synaptic membrane
- in certain disease states the flow of the NT is defective
- in depression for ex the molecules flow back to their originating site (presynaptic membrane) instead of to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
NTs involved in schizophrenia?
- excess dopamine
- GABA and glutamate and ACh may also be assoc
NT involved in alzheimers?
NTs involved in depression?
NTs involved in generalized anxiety disorder?
- NE and serotonin
NTs involved in ADD/ADHD?
- dopamine and NE
NTs involved in drug addiction?
- A lot of them!
Effect of amphetamines on dopamine?
- cause release of dopamine -
increase dopamine - lead to schizo and psychosis
Effect of cocaine on dopamine?
- inhibits uptake of dopamine