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Flashcards in Neurobiology Deck (28):

Fxn of medulla?

- regulates respiration, HR, bp


Fxn of the pons?

- regulates sleep-wake cycles


Fxn of the cerebellum?

- regulates reflexes and balance
- coordinates movement


Fxn of the thalamus?

- major sensory relay center
- regulates higher brain centers and PNS


Fxn of the hypothalamus?

- emotion and motivation
- stress reactions


Limbic system components and fxns?

- hippocampus: formation of new memories
- amygdala: governs emotions related to self preservation
- in depression - amygdala revved - a lot of activity, why you have to taper meds and not just d/c them rapidly


Components and fxns of the cerebral cortex?

- occiptal lobe: receives and processes visual info
- temporal lobe: smell, hearing, balance and equilibrium, emotion and motivation, some language comprehension, complex visual processing
- parietal lobe: sensory projection and association areas, visual/spatial abilities


Fxn of the frontal lobe?

- goal directed behavior
- concentration
- emotional control and temperament
- motor projection and assoc areas
- coordinates messages from other lobes
- complex problem solving
- involved in many aspects of personality

- prefrontal: involved in depression and bipolar


What are NTs?

- chemicals that transmit messages from neuron to neuron
- about 50 id'd
- can excite or inhibit
- each NT directly or indirectly influences neurons in specific portions of the brain, thereby affecting behavior


Common excitatory NTs?

- Ach
- NE
- glutamate


Common inhibitory NTs?

- dopamine
- serotonin


Fxn of Ach? Malfxn?

- fxn: muscle action, learning, memory
- malfxn: dementia, alzheimers


Fxn of dopamine? Malfxn?

- fxn: movement, learning, attention, emotion, motivation as well as mood
- malfxn: too much = schizo
- too little = depression or parkinson's


Fxn of serotonin? Malfxn?

- fxn: mood, hunger, sleep, general level of arousal
- malfxn: not enough = depression
too much = mania


Fxn of NE? Malfxn?

- fxn: alertness, arousal
- malfxn: not enough = depression


Fxn of GABA?

- inhibitory (block nerve impulses), dials down brain activity
- if not enough can lead to seizures, tremors, or insomnia


Fxn of Glutamate?

- excitatory
- too much would over stimulate the brain and could lead to seizures


How do transmitters work (stepwise)?

- nerve impulse travels from 1st neuron to another through axon to axon terminal and synaptic knob
- each knob communicates with dendrite or cell body of another neuron
- the knobs contain neurovesicles that stores and release NTs
- the nerve impulse travels through the axon until it eventually reachs the presynaptic membrane
- presynaptic membrane contains NTs to be released in the synaptic cleft
- freely flowing NT molecules are picked up by receptors located in the post synaptic membrane of another neuron
- once the NT is picked up by the receptors in the post synpatic membrane the molecule is internalized in the neuron and the impulse continues
- the normal flow of the NT is from the presynaptic membrane to the receptors on the post synaptic membrane


NT malfxn?

- in certain disease states the flow of the NT is defective
- in depression for ex the molecules flow back to their originating site (presynaptic membrane) instead of to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane


NTs involved in schizophrenia?

- excess dopamine
- GABA and glutamate and ACh may also be assoc


NT involved in alzheimers?

- Ach


NTs involved in depression?

- NE
- serotonin
- dopamine


NTs involved in generalized anxiety disorder?

- NE and serotonin


NTs involved in ADD/ADHD?

- dopamine and NE


NTs involved in drug addiction?

- A lot of them!


Effect of amphetamines on dopamine?

- cause release of dopamine -
increase dopamine - lead to schizo and psychosis


Effect of cocaine on dopamine?

- inhibits uptake of dopamine


Effect of nicotine on dopamine and glutamate?

- stimulates release of dopamine and glutamate ( smokers have reduced risk of developing parkinsons - increased dopamine)
- most likely increases risk of schizo