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Flashcards in Peds depression Deck (40):

How many adolescents with depression are dx b/f they reach adulthood? How many get adequate tx?

- only 50% with depression are dx b/f they reach adulthood
- only 50% of those dx get adequate tx


Prevalence of depression in peds?

- pre-puberty: 1-2%, girls:boys 1:1
- post-puberty: 3-8%, girls:boys 2:1


RFs for depression?

- personal or family hx of depression
- personal or family hx of bipolar disorder
- suicide related behavior
- substance abuse
- other psychiatric illnesses
- significant psychosocial stressors (family crisis, abuse, neglect, trauma)


Screening tools used for depression?

- screen if sxs warrant it and do this yearly
- GAPS (guidelines for adolescent preventive services)
- beck depression inventory
- kutcher adolescent depression scale
- SDQ (strengths and difficulties questionnaire)
- personal interview: HEADSS


What does HEADSS stand for?

- H (home)
- E (education, employment)
- A (activities)
- D (drugs)
- S (sexuality)
- S (suicide/depression)


Criteria for dx of depression (DSM IV-TR and DSM 5)?

- major depressive episode in kids and adolescents typically includes at least 5 of the following sxs during the same 2 wk period
- at least one of the sxs needs to be depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure

Major depressive episode criteria:
-depressed or irritable mood
-diminished interest or loss of pleasure in almost all activities
- sleep disturbance (sleeping all the time, insomnia)
- wt change, appetite disturbance, or failure to achieve expected wt gain
- decreased concentration or indecisiveness
- suicidal ideation or thoughts of death
- psychomotor agitation or retardation
- fatigue or loss of energy
- feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt
- sxs are not due to medical condition or other psychiatric disorder (bipolar- want to rule this out first!)
- sxs are not due to direct physiological effects of a substance
- sxs are not better accounted for by bereavement beyond 2 months


Depressive sxs in kids and pre-pubertal youth?

- somatic complaints: HA, belly pain, nausea
- psychomotor agitation
- mood-congruent hallucinations
- school refusal
- phobias/separation anxiety/increase in worrying


Typical sxs of a pre-pubertal child with depression?

- child used to enjoy hanging out with friends now continually complaining of HAs or abdominal pain to get out of school. Withdrawal from sports and extracuricular activities. Expresses constant worry over activities at recess and is biting his fingernails until they bleed, he wants nothing to do with his friends.


Depression sxs in adolescents and post-pubertal youth?

- low self esteem, apathy, boredom
- substance abuse
- change in wt, sleep or grades
- psychomotor depression/hypersomnia
- aggression/antisocial behavior
- social withdrawal


Typical sxs of an adolescent with depression?

- 16 yo female - who was previously a good student, now is skipping school and getting into fights. She is barely passing her classes and has been caught shoplifting 2x. She has also started smoking pot, changed friends and showers only 2-3x a week. Stays locked in her room and won't join family for meals


Diff in sxs in younger kids and teens?

- younger kids: may present more somatic sxs and more likely to have psychomotor agititation
- teens may be more likely to present with social withdrawal, substance use and psychomotor depression


Signs and sxs of major depression? SIGECAPS

S: sleep disturbance
I: interests (decreased)
G: guilt (excessive or inapprop.)
E: energy (decreased)
C: concentration probs
A: appetite change
P: pleasure (decreased)
S: suicidal thoughts or actions


Interviewing the child and parent?

- screening forms specifically for the parents/caregivers to fill out
- directed interview
- remember to maintain confidentiality b/t the parents and the pt
- goal is to est. how much support the pt has and to assess for safety (suicidal behaviors)


What other etiologies should you rule out b/f dx depression?

- infection: mono
- med side effects
- endocrine disorder: thyroid disorder
- tumot
- neuro disorder
- miscellaneous: anemia


DDx of depression?

- normal moodiness of teens
- major depressive disorder
- substance induced mood disorder
- adjustment disorder
- anxiety disorder
- bipolar disorder
- eating disorder
- conduct disorder


How common is suicide in adolescents?

- 3rd leading COD
- risk of suicide may increase at the pt recovers some from depression and has more energy and motivation
- in 2014 - q 12.2 min someone in US died from suicide


Most common suicide methods?

- firearms: 51%
- suffocationL 25%
- poisoning: 17%
- other: 8%


Suicide stats - men vs women?

- white males are 4x more likely than females to die by suicide
- females attempt suicide 3x as often as males (poisoning, and OD on drugs)
- ratio of suicide attempts to suicide death in youth is est to be about 25:1, compared to about 4:1 in elderly


Suicidal behaviors in kids and teens?

- expressing self destructive thoughts
- drawing morbid or death related pictures
- using death as a theme during paly in young kids
- listening to music that centers around death
- playing video games that have a self-destructive theme
- reading books or other publications that focus on death
- watching tv shows that center around death
- visiting internet sites that contain death related content
- giving away possessions


What teens are at high risk for suicide? (SAD PERSONS)

- family hx of first degree relative who committed suicide*
- S (sex): females attempt more, males* complete more
- A (age): over 16*
- D (depression) and comborbid conduct disorder/impulsive/aggression/anxiety
- P (previous attempts)*
- E (ETOH) or other substance abuse (SA)
- R (rational thinking lost) psychotic or SA
- S (social supports lacking)*
- O (organized plan) **
- N (no significant other)
- S (sickness or stressors)


Tx for depression?

1. initial management of depression included pt and caregiver education
2. develop a tx plan with pt and family
3. est relevant links with mental health resources in community
4. safety plan


Step 1: initial management?

- educate that depression is often recurrent and what tx options are available
- parental rxn may include sadness, anger or denial
- confidentially - make it clear that content of the visits are confidential unless there is evidence of imminent harm to self or others


Step 2: develop tx plan?

- set specific tx goals in key areas of fxning:
home, peer, and school settings
written goals (HW, exercise, self care)
- determine tx plan based on severity of sxs:
CBT, interpersonal psychotherapy, SSRIs


Step 3: community resources?

- refer to approp. support groups which may be available in the community


Step 4: safety plan?

- all management must include a safety plan
- this is a specific set of instructions for the pt to help recognize their sxs and what they will do if they feel unsafe


Tx options for depression in peds?

- interpersonal psychotherapy


Tx for mild depressive sxs?

- may choose active monitoring for short time
- frequent visits
- Rx regular exercise or leisure activities
- recommend peer support group
- review self management goals
- provide education


CBT tx?

- based on principle that one's thoughts, feelings and behaviors affect one another
- goal of tx: modify the negative thoughts and behaviors


Interpersonal psychotherapy?

- based on principle that depression occurs in an interpersonal context
- goal of tx: address the interpersonal problems that may be contributing to or resulting from the depression


1st steps of pharmacotherapy?

start by:
-assessing prior tx success
- family hx of successful antidepresant use ("zoloft worked great for my mom")
- discussion of duration of tx (6 mo to 1 yr after cessation of sxs-
don't want to take off too soon - relapse of sxs)
- reviewing safety data of meds: take for 4-6 wks for SSRI response
- review side effects


Medical tx with SSRIs?

- fluoxetine (prozac): FDA approved ages 8 and up for depression and OCD
- escitalopram (lexapro): FDA approved ages 12 and up for depression


Use of prozac, pros?

- recommended 1st line SSRI
- 10 mg once daily
- taper up by 10 mg increments q 1-2 weeks: take 1/2 of 20 mg tab for 2 wks then increase to whole tab
- effective dose: 20 mg
- max dose: 60 mg

- pros:
long half life so less withdrawal sxs if missing dosing
mult successful med trials in adolescents


Use of Escitalopram (lexapro)?

- FDA approved for 12 and older first line
- starting dose 5 mg daily
- effective dose 10-20 mg
- max: 20 mg


Rules of SSRI therapy in depression? How long b/f the dosage should be changed?

- don't abruptly stop, SSRIs need to be tapered up and down
- don't increase dose any more frequently then 4-6 wk increments
- try to wait out mild side effects like HA and GI SEs for week or so to see if they subside
- don't stop med for SE just decrease it and see what happens (unless severe)


Common SSRI side effects?

- HA
- GI upset
- insomnia
- agitation
- anxiety


Other SEs of SSRIs that aren't as common?

- dry mouth
- constipation
- sweating
- sexual dysfxn
- irritability
- disinhibition
- appetite changes (generally eat more, wt gain)
- rash
- serotonin syndrome
- akathisia: agitation, feeling restless
- hypomania
- d/c syndrome


BBW for SSRIs?

- increased suicidality risk in kids, adolescents, and young adults with major depressive or other psychiatric disorders - weigh risk vs benefit, in short term studies of antidepressants vs placebo - suicidality risk not increased in pts older than 24, and risk is decreased in pts older than 65


BBW - actual suicide attempts or thoughts?

- 24 clinical trials/4400 kids and adolescents on antidepressants
- no suicides in these trials
- those taking meds were more likely to spontaneously report suicidal thoughts or behaviors 2/100 not on meds vs 4/100 on meds


F/U for pts with depression?

- f/u with these pts q week to 2 weeks at first
- once a maintenance dose f/u once a month for several months then move to quarterly
- continually assess suicidality
- CBT or IPT plus meds have better response to tx
- track written goals
- give all instructions in writing and document pt and parent education
- if no improvement in sxs after 4-6 wks of optimum dosing refer for mental health consultation
- use screening tools to assess response to tx
- involve pt and family


When should you refer pt on to psychiatrist?

- if suspect comorbid psych disorders or bipolar disorder - refer on - complex managment
- if pt not improving after 4-6 wks