Neurobiology of emotion Flashcards Preview

202: Theme 3, Modulatory systems in psychiatry > Neurobiology of emotion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurobiology of emotion Deck (20)
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1

Plutchick and emotions

Theorised 8 basic emotions that were each alternatives:

Joy/ Sadness

Trust/Digust

Fear/ Anger

Surprise/ Anticipation

2

Ekman and emotions

Theorised that emotions expressed facially are innate

- Disgust
- Happy
- Sad
- Anger
- Fear
- Surprised

3

James-Lange theory

Theorised that physiological arousal initiates an emotional experience

4

Frijda and emotions

Theorised that our emotions predisposed specific actions

5

Cannon-brad theory

Theorised that emotions proceeded the physiological changes that occur as a result.

Example
1. Perception of frightening situation
2. Feeling 'fearful'
3. Action--> Heart speeds, sweating/ run away

6

Schacter and singer

Students were given saline or adrenaline and told it was a drug
- One group were misinformed
- Another group informed
- Third group ignorant

Exposed to euphoria/ anger

Gave rise to the conclusion--> physiological response is governed by cognitive interpretation
- When informed, they were the least emotive.

7

Panic disorder
- Mechanism

When bodily sensations are wrongly appraised as catastrophic
[e.g, my heart is racing= im having a heart attack]

People who suffer from it response to cues that suggest sudden, sever illness compared to normal people.

8

Dorsal and ventral visual stream

Dorsal stream
- From primary visual cortex [V1] in occipital lobe --> Parietal lobe
- Interprets where the object is in space

Ventral stream
- From V1--> Medial temporal lobe
- Identifies the object

9

Limbic system [8]

Composed of:

- Hippocampus
- Cingular gyrus
- Hypothalamus
- Orbitofrontal cortex {OFC]
- Mammillary bodies
- Fornix
- Amygdala
- Insula
- Anterior thalamic nucleus

10

Hippocampus

Involved in memory
- Episodic, declarative

11

Amygdala
- Location
- Two divisions

Located in medial temporal lobe

Division
- Corticomedial--> Nuclei project into the hypothalamus
- Basolateral--> Nuclei diffuse into PFC and other extensive projections

12

Amygdala function
- Fear [conditioned and viewing fear]

Processes emotion

Also recognises emotion in others and is involved in emotional learning

Processing fear
- Seeing fear in another person activates feeling fear yourself [lateral amygdala activated]
- Conditioned fear--> dorsal

13

Amygdala and emotional memory

Increased amygdala activity when encoding emotional image= affects if image is remembered

14

Benzodiazepine and the amygdala

Binds to GABA-a sites in the amygdala

Reduces anxiety

Even after destruction of the amygdala, benzodiazepine still has anxiolytic effects

15

Cingulate function

Contains sections that processes:
- Pain + contextualises arousal
- Rest + depression

16

Subgenual cingulate and depression

This area is very involved in processing sadness
- Disruption in this area= depression

17

Orbito-frontal cortex
- Anatomical connections
- Function

Anatomical connection--> Amygdala

Functional
- Impulsitivity--> Acquired sociopathy
- Impaired smell, taste, flavour, reward, satiety
-

18

PFC damage consequences [6]

Severely impaired social behaviour

Insensitive to future consequences of actions

Impaired autonomic response to punishment

Deficit in normal basic cognitive function

Psychopathy [impaired social and moral reasoning]

Impaired decision making

19

Insula function in emotion

- Awareness of the internal bodily state

- Involved in normal response to negative stimulus--> Especially disgust

20

Role of VTA and NAcc in emotion

Reward system
- Release of dopamine in response to rewarding stimuli [mesolimbic]