Neurodegenerative Disease Comparison Flashcards Preview

BIOM30002 - M2M > Neurodegenerative Disease Comparison > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurodegenerative Disease Comparison Deck (14):
1

Compare Age of Onset in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD: 65

PD: 65

MND: 45-60

2

Compare protein of interest in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
• APP (Amyloid-β)
• Tau

PD:
• α-synuclein

MND:
• protein aggregation not a feature

3

Compare genes of interest in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
• APP
• Presenilin-1
• Presenilin-2
• Apo-E4

PD:
• SNCA (α-synuclein)
• Parkin
• LRRK2
• PINK1
• DJ-1

MND:
• SOD1

4

Compare factors that promote and inhibit protein aggregation in:
• AD
• PD

1. AD:
Promotion:
• Metals (Cu, Zn)
• Decreased protease activity

PD:
Promotion:
• Overexpressions of α-synuclein
• Mutation in α-synuclein
• Metal: Cu, Zn

Inhibition:
• Dopamine

5

Compare environmental risk factors in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
• Lifestyle
• Diet
• Education

PD:
• Pesticides
• Metals

MND:
• Military service
• Environmental toxins
• Smoking

6

Compare gender as a risk factor in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
• Females (because they live longer)

PD:
• Males

MND:
• Males (only up to 70, then there is no difference)

7

Compare function of:
• APP
• Amyloid-β
• α-synuclein
• SOD

APP:
• Growth
• Cell signalling

Amyloid-β:
• Anti-oxidant
• Metal ion homeostasis

α-synuclein:
• ?
• Synaptic vesicle trafficking
• Learning
• Memory

SOD: Cu/Zn Superoxide dysmutase
• Anti-oxidant

8

Compare pathological features in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
• Gross atrophy
• Aβ plaques
• NFTs
• Activated microglia
• Hypertrophic astrocytes
• Loss of neurons

PD:
• Lewy bodies (α-synuclein)
• Lewy neurties
• Dopaminergic neurons in pars compacta of SN

MND:
• Loss of motor neurons

9

Compare CNS regions at risk in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
• Hippocampus
• Cortex

PD:
• SN
• Frontal lobes
• Frontal cortex

MND:
• Motor neurons (upper and lower)

10

Compare dementia in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
"Amnestic dementia":
• Memory loss
• Attention deficits
• Language loss

PD:
"Executive dementia"
• Executive function loss
• Impulsivity
• Language loss
• Attention deficits

MND:
Not observed

11

Compare clinical features in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
• Cognitive (Amnestic dementia)

PD:
• Cognitive
• Motor
• Autonomic
• Sensory

MND:
• Motor

12

Compare the toxic form of the protein in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
• Oligomer

PD:
• ??, still controversial
• ? Oligomer

MND:
• Metal deficient Cu/Zn Superoxide dismutase

13

Compare treatment in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:
• Cholinesterase drugs... not very effective

PD:
• L-DOPA

MND:
• Riluzole
• in the future: UoM drug

14

Compare in:
• AD
• PD
• MND

AD:

PD:

MND: