Flashcards in Neurodegenerative Diseases Deck (11)
Three hallmarks of Alzheimer pathology
1) Decreased cholinergic transmission in the hippocampus (memory center) and frontal cortex (executive function/decision making)
2) Amyloid plaques (amyloid beta)
3) Neurofibrillary tangles (hyperphosphorylated tau)
Do any of the alzheimer medications halt the disease?
This gene is used to predict risk for Alzheimer's
ApoE (gene that helps clear the plaques)
ApoE2- Lower AD risk
ApoE3- Normal risk
ApoE4- High risk
-> 1 copy = 3x risk
-> 2 copies = 12-15x risk
APP stands for
Amyloid precursor protein
Early onset AD is usually due to
Early onset is defined as developing AD before age
Parkinson's is characterized by
Muscle rigidity, tremor at rest, difficulty starting and stopping movement, cognitive impairments and depression
Parkinson symptoms won't occur until ___% of neurons between _____ and ______ are lost
Substantia nigra and striatum
What is the hallmark of PD?
What are Lewy bodies?
Protein aggregates composed of alpha-synuclein protein. The function of this protein is unclear. It may function at synapses or ER-golgi trafficking.