Flashcards in Neurological and Endrocrine Disorders Deck (15):
cardiovascular accident cause by cut off of blood flow to the brain
Causes of CVA's
hypertension is the leading cause - others include heart disease, diabetes, cigarette smoking, alcoholism, older age, male gender, African American race, and family history of stroke.
middle cerebral artery
most often involved in stroke
Traumatic Brain Injury - open or closed
closed can cause more widespread damage (may lose consciousness) post traumatic amnesia (anterograde)
lasting symptoms of TBI - prognosis
With regard to prognosis, most people experience the most recovery during the first three months with substantial additional improvement during the first year
caudate nucleus and putamin - genetic - chorea movements - mental symptoms first,( psychosis, depression, dementia) tests CT, MRI, genetic testing
tx antipsychotics, life expect 10-15 years
caused by low dopanine in basal ganglia (substia nigra)
First symptoms are tremors - speech changes - LDOPA -
Seizures two main categories
(partial) focal and generalized - diagnosed with EEG, CT or MRI. Uusally involves" f
Focal/partial seizures (partial/complex partial)
start localized - can spread - imparied awareness
simple partial - no loss of consciousness
Complex partial - some alteration of consciousness
most common cause of partial seziure -
due to temporal lobe epilepsy
Geeralized sezures - tonic clonic and absence
tonic clonic - tonic - muscle stiffness - clonic - shaking of limbs - post seizure (postictal) depress/confusion/amensia - absence - brief loss of consciousness - blank stare with blinking (thalamus plays a role (?).
Migraines - with/without aura
low level of seretonin - tx nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ergot alkaloids, SSRIs, SSRI agonists, beta blockers, and a combination of thermal biofeedback and autogenic training.
Hypertension - primary/secondary
Tx - lifestyle changes and may also include a diuretic, beta blocker, ACE inhibitor, or other blood pressure medication and biofeedback or relaxation training.
primary - 90% of cases "silent killer"
Secondary - due to a known disease. risk for primary hypertension include obesity, tobacco use, excessive salt intake, stress, male gender, older age, African American race, and a family history of hypertension
CT vs MRI
Structural techniques are used to identify structural changes due, for example, to strokes, tumors, degenerative diseases, and infections
CT - Advantages of a CT scan are that it costs less than an MRI, provides images more rapidly, and, unlike an MRI, doesn’t require the patient to be motionless for a long period of time.
MRI - Advantages of an MRI are that it produces three-dimensional and more detailed images and doesn’t require the use of radiation