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EPPP Bio Basis of Behaviour > Memory and Sleep > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory and Sleep Deck (21):

Brain areas that relate to memory

Hippocampus, temporal lobe - Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum, supplementary motor area, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and prefrontal cortex!


Function of Hippocampus in memory- consolidation of memory and spatial memory

the hippocampus plays an important role in the consolidation of long-term declarative memories and also found that it’s involved in spatial memory. Google the study on HM with Alan Alda


Memory : Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum, and Supplementary Motor Area: Implicit memories

These areas are essential for procedural memories and other implicit memories (memories that operate on an unconscious, automatic level). Patients with damage to these areas have trouble learning new skills and performing previously learned skills.



responsible for attaching emotions to memories - not related to memory also know Kluver Bukey - and Septum's role in connection with amygdala


Prefrontal Cortex

essential for transfer of working memory to short term memory, and prospective memory


temporal lobes

encode, store, and retrieve long term declarative memories. removal of right lobe - non verbal meory tasks and left impacts verbal memory


Thalamus and Mammillary Bodies

damage to these areas can cause anterograde and retrograde amnesia


Neural mechanisms responsible for learning and memeory - sea slugs (Aplysia - you tube)

Researchers subsequently identified a similar phenomenon in other animals and humans and referred to it as long-term potentiation (LTP). LTP was first observed in glutamate receptors in the hippocampus but was subsequently observed in other areas of the brain including the amygdala and entorhinal cortex. It occurs in a neuron as the result of rapid and/or high-frequency stimulation and is believed to play an essential role in learning and memory formation.


Long term potentiation

molecular event thought to contribue to learning. way he brain changes due to learning therefore strenthening the response - Strengthens connection with use. See 2 minute neuroscience on You tube.


Protein Synthesis

long term memory seems to depend on enhanced protein synthesis durin ght eminutes hours following learning/training


As the neural level, __________ in the hippocampus is believed to be important for long term memory. There is also evidence that long term memory depends on incrased _____________ during the minutes or hours following training.

LTP and protein synthesis


When the synthesis of protein of ________ is inhibited - long term memory is impaired



What is aphasia

impaired language production/comprehension.



in dominant (l) frontal lobe
expressive/motor/non-fluent aphasia - affects speech production - person is aware of deficits. Comprehension is intact


Wernicke's Aphasia

in dominant left temporal lobe
receptive/impressive/sensory/fluent aphasia
affect understanding written and spoken language
cannot generate sensical speech
anomia, paraphasia, and problems with receptions
patient is not aware of deficits


Conduction Aphasia

arcuate fasciculus - connects Broca/Wenicke area - this is damaged - Does not significantly affect language comprehesion - but anomia, paraphasia, and impaired repetition


transcortical aphasia

lesions outside Brocas and Wernickes. if damage is by Broca - transcortical motor aphasia -and if Wenicke - transcortical sensory aphasia. If both areas are damaged - mixed transcortical ahasias. Able to talk, but having nothing to say and cannot understand written and spoken language.


Global Aphasia -

extensive areas affected. Often accompanied by right hemiplegia, right hemisensory loss, and right hemianopia (loss of right visual field in both eyes)


Stages of Sleep - BATS D(rink) B(lood)

Beta waves (awake)
Alpha waves (drowsy)
Theta waves (stage 1)
Spindles and K complexes (stage 2)
Delta waves (stage 3 and 4) - REM Stage
then back to Beta waves (awake)


Five Stages of Sleep Model - REM occurs in stage 5

Following about 10 minutes of REM sleep, a person cycles through the non-REM and REM sleep stages again and this continues throughout the sleep period. However, as the night progresses, the duration of REM sleep increases and the duration of Stage 3 and Stage 4 sleep decreases.

(a) Stage 1 is a transitional stage between wakefulness and sleep. During this stage, low frequency, high amplitude alpha waves (which are characteristic of a drowsy state) are replaced by low frequency, low amplitude theta waves.

(b) Theta waves continue during Stage 2 but are interrupted by sleep spindles (sudden bursts of moderately fast waves) and k-complexes (large slow waves).

(c) Stage 3 begins after a person has been asleep for about 20 minutes and is characterized by low frequency, high amplitude delta waves.

(d) Delta waves continue during Stage 4 but are of higher amplitude. Stages 3 and 4 are also referred to as slow-wave sleep and deep sleep.

(e) Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep begins after a person has been asleep for 80 to 90 minutes, and its EEG pattern is similar to the Stage 1 pattern. REM sleep is also referred to as paradoxical sleep because it’s characterized by an active brain and physiological arousal while the body’s major muscle groups are nearly paralyzed and the person is very difficult to arouse. Most dreams occur during REM sleep and are more vivid, bizarre, and detailed than those that occur during non-REM sleep.


what is true about sleep in older adults

Although older adults do not require less sleep than younger adults, they have more trouble falling asleep, spend less time in deep sleep (especially Stage 4 sleep), experience more evenly distributed REM sleep throughout the night, wake up more often during the night, and experience an advanced sleep phase, which is also known as circadian phase advance and involves going to sleep earlier in the evening and waking up earlier.