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Flashcards in neuropharmacology Deck (20):
1

What are 5 parts of synaptic transmission and drug effects for each?

1. transmitter synthesis and storage - drug and increase or decrease the level of neurotransmitter.

2. Transmitter release - drug can increase or decrease release of neurotransmitters.

3. Neurotransmitter levels in synapse Drug?

4. Receptor binding
bind to receptor causing activation (agonists)
bind to receptor and block neurotransmitter from
binding (antagonists)
bind to components of receptor enhancing effect of
natural transmitter.

5. Termination of transmission
reuptake -blocked by drug
enzymatic degradation -inhibited by drug
diffusion

2

3 divisions of autonomic

enteric
parasympathetic
sympathetic

3

Location/parts of sensory neuron
Location of skeletal motor neuron

autonomic (sympathetic) nerve components- smooth muscles

arise in dorsal horn. exit in dorsal root ganglion (cell body) .

arise in ventral horn and exit in ventral root

preganglionic and postganglionic neurons -

4

describe parts and function of somatic system

voluntary control via skeletel muscles.
Consists of afferent nerves or sensory nerves
Consists of efferent nerves or motor nerves

5

Parts of central Nervous System

cerebrum
cerebellum
mid brain, pons and medulla (brain stem)
spinal column
spinal cord
dura matter
diencephalon

6

What is the efferent division of the PNS?
What is the afferent division of the PNS


Afferent post neuron orginates in ganglion and terminates

7

Unusual fact about enteric system in the autonomic system

function independently of the

8

Unusual fact about enteric system in the autonomic system? What is controlled in this system?

function independently of the CNS
motility, exocrine and endocrine secretions.

9

Differences between SNS and PNS

SNS
T1-L2
Wide spread effect.
Shorter preganglion neurons
numerous organs to recieve stimulus simultaneously

PNS - Rest and digest and housekeeping functions
slower more discrete effect
longer preganglion
arise Cranial Nerves 3, 7,9 10 and vagus
thorasic and abdominal cavity,

10

PSNS
heart
aterioles
secretions
digestion
bladder and bowel
eye
bronchial smooth muscle
male

PSNS
heart - slow rate not primarily a part
aterioles - dialate some
secretions-- increased -lacrimal/salivary/sweat, nasopharyngeal tissue, bronchial glands

digestion-- increase digestion secretions such as enzymes from stomach, pancreas and intestine. Increase motility and tone

bladder and bowel - empty
eye -focus for near constrict pupil
bronchial smooth muscle - contract
male - erection

11

PSNS
heart
aterioles
secretions
digestion
bladder and bowel
eye
bronchial smooth muscle
male

PSNS - rest and digest, feed, breed, homeostatis,
heart - slow rate not primarily a part
aterioles - dialate some
secretions-- increased -lacrimal/salivary/sweat, nasopharyngeal tissue, bronchial glands

digestion-- increase digestion secretions such as enzymes from stomach, pancreas and intestine. Increase motility and tone

bladder and bowel - empty including involuntary
eye -focus for near constrict pupil
bronchial smooth muscle - contract
male - erection

12

SNS main functions
regulation of cardiovascular-what
lungs
pupils
energy

What events activate the SNS?

Fight or flight
regulate cardiovascular -constriction and dilation of arterioles. increase HR, Contractility, automaticity, speed, cardiac output and blood pressure

temperature regulation
dilate bronchi
dilate pupils
mobilize energy stores

trauma, feet, hypoglycemia, cold and exercise



13

Feedback regulation has two parts.
provide and describe

Sensor: Monitor status of physiologic functions and sends to CNS (senses and sends to the brain)
Effector: Picks up signals from CNS and sent to ANS
Neurons that connect two systems. (Exits the brains)

14

Baroceptor example of feedback loop

1. Fall in blood pressure
2. Baroceptors in heart vessels send fewer signals to the heart center.
3. prompts a reflex response which us in increase in sympathetic response and a decrease in parasympathetic outflow to heart
4. rise in blood pressure (compensation)

15

What neurotransmitters a used by the PNS and where are they found?

What types of receptors and location?
found at the neuromuscular junction.


system transmitter/receptor location
sympathetic acetylcholine preganglionic
norepi and Ach postganglionic
nicotinic recep preganglionic
alpha & beta adrenergic recep postganglionic
muscarinic recep (sweat glands)
widely distributed


parasympathetic acetylcholine preganglionic &
postganlionic
nicotinic recep preganglionic
muscarinic recep postganglionic
more limited distribution

Somatic acetylcholine one neuron
nicotinic

16

Receptor subtypes affinity low to high
Acetylcholine?

Muscarinic

nicotinic

acetylcholine has same affinity for each receptor

muscarine, acetyl, nicotine

nicotine, acetyl, muscarine

17

Muscarinic receptors are what type?
name location
M1 -M5

Cholinergic receptors

M1, M4, M5 CNS, sympathetic postganglionic neurons
M2 Heart - decrease rate and contractility
M3 Smooth muscle - exocrine glands, bronchial tissue, GI Tract, bladder and vessels.

18

Actions of M3 cholinergic receptor in PSNS
eye
bladder
GI
sex organ
Vessels
Glands

eye - miosis, contraction of ciliary muscles
bladder - release and relax
GI - increase motility
sex organ - erection
Vessels - dilation coronary, cerebral, pulmonary arterioles
Glands - secrete!

19

Muscarinic receptors antagonists are
parasympolytic

contraindications

muscarinic are cholenergic receptors

SE: hot as a hare, dry as a bone, blind as a bat, red as a beet, mad as a hatter.

adverse effects
xerstomia
flushing
blurred vision
increase intraocular pressure
urinary retention
constipation
tachycardia
anhydrosis (reduced sweating)
confusion and delerium
drying of bronchial and GI secretions

20

SE can go unnoticed in elderly populations Why?


Elderly are at risk for anticholinergic SE, Why?

misdiagnosis, low health expectations, failure to report symptoms, cognitive decline, expressive decline

poor clearance/elimination of drugs