Flashcards in Neuropharmacology Intro Deck (45)
Cholinergic transmission is important for
cognitive function, sensitization to incoming stimuli, movement control
Describe the difference between nACh receptors and mACh receptors.
nAch receptors are ligand gated cation channels whereas mACh receptors are GPCRs
Where are cholinergic neurons?
concentrated in the basal forebrain and pons, but numerous cholinergic interneurons are found int he cortex and basal ganglia
Dopamine transmission is important for
natural rewards and motor function
Problems in dopamine transmission is implicated in diseases or disorders such as
schizophrenia, parkinsons disease, addiction, depression and ADHD
Two varieties of GPCR dopamine receptors
D1-type (D1 and D5) and D2-type (including D2, D3, and D4)
Where are dopamine neurons?
situated in the midbrain, either the ventral tegmental area or the substantia nigra pars compacta
adrenergic receptors (GPCRs), ainly alph1 and/or alpha2 in the CNS
NE is involved in
memory, pain transmission, and salience
NE transmission is altered in
depression and addiction
NE neurons are located in
the pons, specifically the locus coeruleus
either 5-HT3 ligand gated cation channels, or GPCR-type 5-HT receptors
Serotonin is important in
reward, learning, and mood/affect, and is thought to play a major role in depression and possibly schizophrenia
Where are serotonin neurons located?
in the midbrain/pons, specificially inthe raphe
GABA is produced from
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS
GABAA type ligand gated Cl- channels, and GABAB and GABAC receptors which are GPCRs
Where is GABA produced?
produced throughout the brain by numerous cell types, and is altered in many disorders, including epilepsy, muscle spasticity, and addictions such as alcoholism
Main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
What does glutamate bind to?
Ion channels (AMPA, NMDA) and GPCRs (mGluRs)
Glutamate may be a useful pharmacologic target in which diseases?
epilepsy and schizophrenia
Two categories of ligand-gated
ion channels and G protein coupled receptors
HCN channels are
cyclic nucleotide-gated channels
Ligand that modifies HCN channels
cAMP or cGMP
Describes what happens when a GIRK channel is activated
activating a GPCR coupled to a GIRK channel results in enhanced outward K+ currents, which serve to hyperpolarize the membrane potential and keep the cell "clamped" near the equilibrium potential for K+, which is around -90mV
Where are NT transporters usually located?
usually located presynaptically where they remove NT molecules from the synaptic cleft and return them back inside the presynaptic terminal
Which ion do most neurotransmitter transporters use?
most are Na+ symporters, making them electrogenic
How is electrical activity altered by drugs
by directly affecting the function of ion channels, or indirectly by changing the overall number or function of important targets in the CNS
Where do drugs act?
NT synthesis, NT storage, NT reuptake, autoreceptors, presynaptic receptors, postsynaptic receptors