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Pharmacology Test #6 > Substance Abuse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Substance Abuse Deck (73)
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1

Physical dependence

withdrawal signs occur upon discontinuation; can be physically dependent but not addicted

2

Psychological dependence

Addiction; compulsive drug use; drug seeking, craving, despite negative consequences

3

Tolerance

higher doses are required to elicit the same effect, functional changes in receptors or drug metabolism; reflects adaptive changes the body has made to compensate for the drug's presence

4

Withdrawal

signs of symptoms occurring as a result of drug discontinuation

5

All abused drugs active which dopamine pathway?

all abused drugs activate the mesolimbic DA pathway, causing release of DA in forebrain structures such as the NAc and PFC

6

How is dopamine usually used in the brain?

dopamine is normally used as a learning signal in the brain (signaling the difference between expected and actual reward)

7

Addiction to drugs is what type of learning?

maladaptive learning, often stronger than "natural rewards"

8

Precipitated withdrawal

pharmacologically-induced onset of withdrawal; often worse than normal withdrawal because some or all the receptors are blocked at once

9

Example of precipitated withdrawal

buprenorphine can induced precipitated withdrawal to opioids such as heroin

10

Conditioned withdrawal

withdrawal (and possible drug seeking) brought on or exacerbated by environmental cues

11

What did the controlled substance ace of 1970 establish?

established schedules for controlled substances

12

Alcohol used recreationally for

anxiolytic and euphoria

13

Other uses of alcohol besides recreationally

disinfectant, analgesic, organic solvents

14

How do you define alcoholism?

If it interferes with daily life, if you continue to do it even though it negatively impacts your life

15

Differences in distribution of alcohol between men and women

Men have 58% body water whereas women have 48% , so men can dilute it more and therefore drink more

16

What type of kinetics is alcohol eliminated by?

eliminated with zero order kinetics (constant rate)

17

Acute tolerance of alcohol

intoxication greater when BAC is ascending versus descending

18

Chronic tolerance of alcohol

greater concentrations needed to achieve desired effect

19

Fomepizol inhibits

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)

20

Disulfiram inhibits

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)

21

Fomepizol is used to treat

methanol, ethylene glycol poisoning

22

Disulfiram is used for

used for motivated drinkers; sensitizes a person to ethanol; disuades ethanol use during abstinence

23

Describe alcohol metabolism

1. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase
2. Acetaldehyde is metabolized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase

24

CNS targets of alcohol

1. GABA(A) receptor potentiator (hyperpolarizes neuronal membrane, inhibits firing)
2. NMDA receptor antagonist (inhibits excitatory aa receptor)

25

What contributes to the CNS depression, cognitive deficits and memory impairment seen with alcohol?

NMDA receptor antagonism

26

Effects of the CNS targets of alcohol

1. Mild CNS stimulation (disinhibition)
2. CNS depression
3. Cognitive impairment
4. Motor impairment
5. Coma, death

27

Acute organ toxicity from alcohol

1. CNS: sedation, ataxia, intoxication
2. Cardiovascular: vasodilation, CV depression

28

Chronic organ toxicity from alcohol

1. CNS: tolerance, physical dependence, nerve injury
2. CV: prevent coronary disease, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, hypertension
3. Liver/GI: liver disease (cirrhosis)
4. Cancer: mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver

29

Drug interactions with alcohol

1. Synergy with CNS depressants
2. Inhibits metabolism of phenothiazines, TCAs, sedative-hypnotics
3. Disulfiram
4. Acetaminophen (promotes liver damage by NAPQI)

30

Contraindications for alcohol use

1. Liver disease
2. Peptic ulcers: ethanol is a secretagogue
3. Epilepsy: ethanol changes neuronal excitability