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The franks

Franks are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern French people.



The Pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the traditional successor to Saint Peter, to whom Jesus gave the keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built.y



a member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.



a person sent on a religious mission, especially one sent to promote Christianity in a foreign country.



anun is a member of a religious community of women, typically one living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. She may have decided to dedicate her life to serving all other living beings, or she might be an ascetic who voluntarily chose to leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent.



building or buildings occupied by a community of monks living under religious vows



(742–814), king of the Franks 768–814 and Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles I) 800–814; Latin name Carolus Magnus; known as Charles the Great. As the first Holy Roman emperor, Charlemagne promoted the arts and education, and his court became the cultural center of the Carolingian Renaissancey


Carolingian Dynasty

The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name "Carolingian" derives from the Latinised name of Charles Martel: Carolus.


Middle Ages

the period of European history from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West (5th century) to the fall of Constantinople (1453), or, more narrowly, from c. 1100 to 1453.



any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of northwestern Europe in the 8th–11th centuries



The Mongols are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China (e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia.


Genghis Khan

(1162–1227), founder of the Mongol empire; born Temujin. He took the name Genghis Khan (“ruler of all”) in 1206 after uniting the nomadic Mongol tribes. When he died, his empire extended from China to the Black Sea. His grandson Kublai Khan completed the conquest of China.



Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.


the golden Horde

The Golden Horde Zolotaya Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда Altın Urda) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.



the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.



a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance.
synonyms: serf · dependent · servant · slave · subject · bondsman · [more]
a person or country in a subordinate position to another:
"a much stronger nation can also turn a weaker one into a vassal state"



in the Middle Ages) a man who served his sovereign or lord as a mounted soldier in armor.



an estate of land, especially one held on condition of feudal service.
a person's sphere of operation or control.



a Christian community under monastic vows, especially one of nuns.



a city in central California, in the San Joaquin Valley, northeast of Fresno; pop. 92,318 (est. 2008).