Flashcards in Newton's Lectures Exam 1 Deck (48)
Name of the deformity that occurs when there is incomplete fusion of the upper lip along the midline
This occurs when there is incomplete fusion of the palatine shelves
palatoschisis (communication between oral and nasal cavities)
What drug/toxin is linked to palatoschisis in:
2) Veratrum californicum
Describe the pathogenesis of ingesting Veratrum californicum
plant contains steroidal alkaloids (jervine & cyclopamine) that inhibit hedgehog signaling pathway during development
Name the potential outcome if a sheep eats Veratrum californicum on:
1) Day 14 of gestation
2) Days 17-19 of gestation
3) Days 28-31 of gestation
1) congenital deformities of head
2) tracheal deformations
3) shortened metatarsal and metacarpal bones
Describe the difference between brachygnathia superior and inferior
Superior--short maxilla with normal mandible (bulldog)
Inferior--short mandible with normal maxilla (parrot mouth)
What term is use to describe:
1) elongated mandibles
2) absence of a lower jaw
Name the term that describes inflammation in the following areas:
2) oral mucosa
A parapox viral disease of cattle that causes papule formation in the oral cavity, nares, and muzzle; ZOONOTIC!
Bovine papular stomatitis
This is a zoonotic disease of sheep and goats where lesions appear on the corners of the mouth, udders, and around coronary bands
Contagious ecthyma (orf)
A vesicular disease not caused by a virus?
This is an oral disease of cats where proliferative lesions form on the glossopalatine arches
Feline plasma cell gingivitis (Feling lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis)
This disease, though more common in cats, can affect siberian huskies and cause ulcerative lesions to form at the mucocutaneous junctions
Oral eosinophilic granuloma complex
A dog with severe dental plaque may be at risk for this disease?
Chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis
The causative agent of oral necrobacillosis (calf diphtheria)?
(also causes foot rot in ruminants)
This bacteria can invade oral wounds and cause granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis in the deep tissues of the tongue
Name disease and causative agent:
chronic granulomatous inflammation of the mandible; can have draining tracts with "sulfur granules"
T/F: the causative agent of thrush is a common oral inhabitant
True (Candida albicans)
Name two drugs which are known to induce gingival hyperplasia. Tx?
Amlodipine & cyclosporine
No need to treat; will resolve when drugs are stopped
T/F: Thrush is NOT a primary disease
True! (secondary to debility or long-term antibiotic therapy)
Describe the differences in squamous cell carcinoma behavior in dogs vs. cats
Dogs--commonly affects the tonsils and metastasizes
Cats--usually on the tongue and metastasis is more rare
Which oral neoplasm appears aggressive from a histological standpoint but doesn't behave aggressive and does not metastasize
Oral (extramedullary) plasmacytoma
Name the two subclassifications of epulides; Which is more locally invasive and can lead to bone destruction?
1) Fibromatous epulis
2) Acanthomatous epuli (locally invasive)
Name 4 things that can cause it
inflammation of salivary glands;
2) distemper (dogs)
3) Strangles (horses)
4) Vitamin A deficiency
dilation of the duct of the sublingual salivary gland
How does a salivary mucocele (sialocele) form?
When a salivary duct is torn or ruptured, the salivary secretions drain into the subcutaneous tissues
Which esophageal sphincter is affected in cricopharyngeal achalasia?
Upper esophageal sphincter (doesn't relax properly)
Name the 3 vascular structures that trap the esophagus in persistant right aortic arch
2) pulmonary artery
3) ductus arteriosus
Name 2 important parasites of the esophagus
Two neoplasms that can develop in dogs infected with spirocerca lupi
Name two mechanisms by which hypersecretion of acid could occur in the stomach
2) mast cell tumors
Name the 2 primary ways gastric ulcers form
1) hypersecretion of acid
2) injury to protective layer (epithelium) allowing back-diffusion of acid
Describe 3 ways a pig's diet can predispose to ulcer formation
1) diet contains too much corn (wheat and oats are better)
2) Food is fine & dry (moist and coarse is better)
3) diet contains too many unsaturated FAs
Contrast primary and secondary gastric dilation in horses
Primary-->due to overeating (lush pastures, grain, excess water)
Secondary-->caused by gastric ulcers, neoplasia, pyloric stenosis, cribbing
Describe the pathophysiology behind congeital aganglionic megacolon in foals
These foals have a mutation in the endothelin B receptor gene; a myenteric and submucosal plexus don't develop, causing the affected bowel segments to not have any peristalsis
Name 2 common locations that enteroliths get stuck in horses
1) pelvic flexure
2) transverse colon
Trichobezoars & phytobezoars
Concerning intussusception, what is the term given to the the piece of gut that is trapped; the part that's doing the trapping?
How can you differentiate true intussusception from post-mortem intussusception?
True-->enlarged, severely congested, and impossible to undo
Post-mortems aren't discolored and can easily be pulled apart
Causative agent of verminous arteritits
Differentiate volvulus and torsion
Volvulus--twisting on its mesenteric axis
Torsion--rotation along the long axis
A common cause of PLE in dogs
Name the 4 basic mechanisms of diarrhea
2) increased permeability
What 3 things influence the permeability of the gut wall?
1) pore size/mucosal integrity
2) osmotic factors
3) impaired lymphatic drainage
This organism can cause hypersecretory diarrhea
ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli)
Main cause of diarrhea in rotavirus infections?
malabsorption/maldigestion due to enterocyte death and shortening of affected villi
How do Clostridial toxins affect the gut?
causes enterocytes to undergo necrosis, they release from the basement membrane and slough into the lumen