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Flashcards in Newton's Lectures Exam 1 Deck (48)
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1

Name of the deformity that occurs when there is incomplete fusion of the upper lip along the midline

Cheiloschisis

2

This occurs when there is incomplete fusion of the palatine shelves

palatoschisis (communication between oral and nasal cavities)

3

What drug/toxin is linked to palatoschisis in:
1) Cats
2) sheep

1) Griseofulvin

2) Veratrum californicum

4

Describe the pathogenesis of ingesting Veratrum californicum

plant contains steroidal alkaloids (jervine & cyclopamine) that inhibit hedgehog signaling pathway during development

5

Name the potential outcome if a sheep eats Veratrum californicum on:
1) Day 14 of gestation
2) Days 17-19 of gestation
3) Days 28-31 of gestation

1) congenital deformities of head
2) tracheal deformations
3) shortened metatarsal and metacarpal bones

6

Describe the difference between brachygnathia superior and inferior

Superior--short maxilla with normal mandible (bulldog)

Inferior--short mandible with normal maxilla (parrot mouth)

7

What term is use to describe:
1) elongated mandibles
2) absence of a lower jaw

1) prognathia

2) agnathia

8

Name the term that describes inflammation in the following areas:
1) lips
2) oral mucosa
3) tongue
4) gums
5) pharynx
6) tonsils

1) chelitis
2) stomatitis
3) glossitis
4) gingivitis
5) pharyngitis
6) tonsillitis

9

A parapox viral disease of cattle that causes papule formation in the oral cavity, nares, and muzzle; ZOONOTIC!

Bovine papular stomatitis

10

This is a zoonotic disease of sheep and goats where lesions appear on the corners of the mouth, udders, and around coronary bands

Contagious ecthyma (orf)

11

A vesicular disease not caused by a virus?

Pemphigus vulgaris

12

This is an oral disease of cats where proliferative lesions form on the glossopalatine arches

Feline plasma cell gingivitis (Feling lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis)

13

This disease, though more common in cats, can affect siberian huskies and cause ulcerative lesions to form at the mucocutaneous junctions

Oral eosinophilic granuloma complex

14

A dog with severe dental plaque may be at risk for this disease?

Chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis

15

The causative agent of oral necrobacillosis (calf diphtheria)?

Fusobacterium necrophorum
(also causes foot rot in ruminants)

16

This bacteria can invade oral wounds and cause granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis in the deep tissues of the tongue

Actinobacillus lignieresii
(wooden tongue)

17

Name disease and causative agent:

chronic granulomatous inflammation of the mandible; can have draining tracts with "sulfur granules"

Lumpy Jaw

Actinomyces bovis

18

T/F: the causative agent of thrush is a common oral inhabitant

True (Candida albicans)

19

Name two drugs which are known to induce gingival hyperplasia. Tx?

Amlodipine & cyclosporine

No need to treat; will resolve when drugs are stopped

20

T/F: Thrush is NOT a primary disease

True! (secondary to debility or long-term antibiotic therapy)

21

Describe the differences in squamous cell carcinoma behavior in dogs vs. cats

Dogs--commonly affects the tonsils and metastasizes

Cats--usually on the tongue and metastasis is more rare

22

Which oral neoplasm appears aggressive from a histological standpoint but doesn't behave aggressive and does not metastasize

Oral (extramedullary) plasmacytoma

23

Name the two subclassifications of epulides; Which is more locally invasive and can lead to bone destruction?

1) Fibromatous epulis

2) Acanthomatous epuli (locally invasive)

24

Define sialodenitis;

Name 4 things that can cause it

inflammation of salivary glands;

1) Rabies
2) distemper (dogs)
3) Strangles (horses)
4) Vitamin A deficiency

25

Define: Ranula

dilation of the duct of the sublingual salivary gland

26

How does a salivary mucocele (sialocele) form?

When a salivary duct is torn or ruptured, the salivary secretions drain into the subcutaneous tissues

27

Which esophageal sphincter is affected in cricopharyngeal achalasia?

Upper esophageal sphincter (doesn't relax properly)

28

Name the 3 vascular structures that trap the esophagus in persistant right aortic arch

1) aorta
2) pulmonary artery
3) ductus arteriosus

29

Name 2 important parasites of the esophagus

Gongylonema spp.
Spirocerca lupi

30

Two neoplasms that can develop in dogs infected with spirocerca lupi

Fibrosarcoma
Osteosarcoma

31

Name two mechanisms by which hypersecretion of acid could occur in the stomach

1) gastrinoma
2) mast cell tumors

32

Name the 2 primary ways gastric ulcers form

1) hypersecretion of acid
2) injury to protective layer (epithelium) allowing back-diffusion of acid

33

Describe 3 ways a pig's diet can predispose to ulcer formation

1) diet contains too much corn (wheat and oats are better)

2) Food is fine & dry (moist and coarse is better)

3) diet contains too many unsaturated FAs

34

Contrast primary and secondary gastric dilation in horses

Primary-->due to overeating (lush pastures, grain, excess water)

Secondary-->caused by gastric ulcers, neoplasia, pyloric stenosis, cribbing

35

Describe the pathophysiology behind congeital aganglionic megacolon in foals

These foals have a mutation in the endothelin B receptor gene; a myenteric and submucosal plexus don't develop, causing the affected bowel segments to not have any peristalsis

36

Name 2 common locations that enteroliths get stuck in horses

1) pelvic flexure
2) transverse colon

37

Differentiate:
Trichobezoars & phytobezoars

Tricho--hair ball
Phyto--plant fibers

38

Concerning intussusception, what is the term given to the the piece of gut that is trapped; the part that's doing the trapping?

Intussusceptum--trapped part

Intussuscipiens--enveloping part

39

How can you differentiate true intussusception from post-mortem intussusception?

True-->enlarged, severely congested, and impossible to undo

Post-mortems aren't discolored and can easily be pulled apart

40

Causative agent of verminous arteritits

Strongylus vulgaris

41

Differentiate volvulus and torsion

Volvulus--twisting on its mesenteric axis

Torsion--rotation along the long axis

42

A common cause of PLE in dogs

Lymphangiectasis

43

Name the 4 basic mechanisms of diarrhea

1) hypermotility
2) increased permeability
3) Hypersecretion
4) Malabsorption

44

What 3 things influence the permeability of the gut wall?

1) pore size/mucosal integrity
2) osmotic factors
3) impaired lymphatic drainage

45

This organism can cause hypersecretory diarrhea

ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli)

*non-inflammatory diarrhea*

46

Main cause of diarrhea in rotavirus infections?

malabsorption/maldigestion due to enterocyte death and shortening of affected villi

47

How do Clostridial toxins affect the gut?

causes enterocytes to undergo necrosis, they release from the basement membrane and slough into the lumen

48

Causative agent of Johne's disease?

Mycobacterium paratuberculosis