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Flashcards in NML (Detailed) Deck (136)
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1
Q

deontological

A

An approach in ethics in which the rightfulness or wrongfulness of an act is judged by how it conforms to duties rules and obligations.

2
Q

teleological

A

theory of which the rightness of an act is determined by the end result. Moral goodness is rooted in the consequences of our actions.

3
Q

eudaimonia

A

ultimate happiness through union with God.

4
Q

character based

A

Aquinas adopted ideas from Aristotle, he believed following the Natural Law could also help develop virtuous character and he focused on the four Cardinal virtues and the three Theological virtues. Being virtuous allows you to reach ‘real’ rather than ‘apparent’ goods.

5
Q

deductive

A

if statements are true the conclusion must be true

6
Q

a priori

A

something that can be known without sense experience.

7
Q

absolute rules

A

must be obeyed, no exception or excemption to primary precepts.

8
Q

synderesis

A

innate principle in moral consciousness of every person which directs us to good and avoids evil.
If we apply our god given reason it will lead to right actions.

9
Q

what is moral obligation

A

a duty we are ought to perform but not legally bound to fulfil

10
Q

Beatific vision

A

Ultimate direct self communication of god to humanity 

11
Q

give an example of a Deontological statement

A

It is always wrong to kill no matter what the consequences

12
Q

Telos

A

Purpose or end goal

13
Q

What is natural moral law

A

A theory that proposes the existence of a law whose content is set by nature. derive from God that therefore has validity everywhere. 

14
Q

What type of theory is NML

A

Deductive a priori theory

Starts with primary principles and from these the right course of action in a particular situation can be deduced

15
Q

How is it a deontological system

A

Absolute rules

Looking at the intent behind an action in the nature of the act itself not at outcomes

16
Q

Who are the two biblical backgrounds to study for natural moral law

A

The stoics

Aristotle

17
Q

Who were the Stoics

A

A group of Greek philosophers who came after Aristotle and argue that the universe has a basic design on purpose which human morality should work in harmony with

18
Q

What did the ancient Stoics emphasise

A

The importance of logos (Word of God) or rationality that governs the world sees human nature is part of one natural order

19
Q

Link the Stoics to reason and gods nature

A

They believe that all humans have a divine spark within them that helps them to live according to gods will
Natural law a law reason

20
Q

Quote Saint Paul wrote in the letter to the Romans

A

“Written in the hearts “

21
Q

Basic beliefs by Aristotle

A

Natural justice not always the same as law is independent and applies to everyone no matter where they live
Everything has a purpose (TELOS) and supreme good is found when it fulfils purpose.

22
Q

What did Aristotle believed eudaimonia was

A

The supreme good for humans

Means happiness and the final goal for humans to reach after living a life of reason

23
Q

What is human flourishing

A

Live in life of reason according to virtue

24
Q

According to Aristotle what Telos/function is peculiar to the life of plants

A

Life of nutrition and growth

25
Q

According to Aristotle what Telos function is peculiar to the life of animals

A

Life of perception

26
Q

According to Aristotle what telos/function distinguishes human beings

A

Reasoning
Eudaimonia
Human flourishing life of reason in accordance to virtue

27
Q

Who was Aquinas

A

13th century catholic priest and theologian

28
Q

Who was Aquinas influence by

A

Aristotle

29
Q

Basic beliefs of Aquinas and natural moral law

A

Everything has a purpose
Faith must be grounded by reason
To for fill our purpose we have a desire to do good
To follow NML you don’t need a belief in God

30
Q

God given reason

A

The belief that God has given humans the ability to cognitively process (think about) the difference between right and wrong

31
Q

What actually is the natural moral law theory

A

But everything has a purpose and this purpose can be known through reason
As a result fulfilling the purpose of our design is the only good for humans

32
Q

What are the four causes

A
The material cause
The efficient cause
The formal cause
The final cause

33
Q

What is the material cause

A

The way things come to be

For example a statue made of stone

34
Q

What is the efficient cause

A

What gets things done

E.g. builder causes a building

35
Q

What is the formal cause

A

The definition of a thing

For example facts and descriptions

36
Q

What is the final cause

A

The goal or purpose

E.g. staying healthy by walking

37
Q

What are the fourfold divisions of law

A

Eternal law
Divine law
Natural law
Human law

38
Q

What is eternal law

A

Only God knows this law
identical to his mind
Gods rational purpose and plan of all things
Unchanging and eternal

39
Q

What is human law

A

General laws devised by human reason
Should not contradict NML
differs from country to country

40
Q

What is divine law

A

Old and new testament of bible
Appears historically specially Through revelation
Old law - Ten Commandments
New law - Jesus teachings

41
Q

Four claims to NML

A

Unchanging principles that exist in nature that define what is right and good

Accessible to all men and discovered by right use of reason

Apply to all men in all circumstances

Man made laws are just and authoritative as long as they are derivable from the principle of law in nature

42
Q

Aquinas’ quote linked to synderesis rule and explain

A

Good is to be perused and evil is to be avoided

Directs our conscience if followed will lead to right actions
Our inclination draws humans like a magnet towards the highest goods (perfection)

43
Q

Why does NML actually exist

A

To help humans direct their actions to do the right thing so they may live with God in the afterlife after reaching their telos

44
Q

What is Aquinas’ basic precept

A

That good is to be done and perused and evil is to be avoided (synderesis rule)

45
Q

What does Aquinas mean when he says we should not be enslaved by non rational desires

A

Use our free will the correct way and not for apparent goods
We are emotive beings we should put that aside to focus on precepts. They guide us.

46
Q

Quote on moral life and reason

A

To disparage the dictate of reason is equivalent to condemning the command of god.

47
Q

explain Reason tell us to do good and avoid evil

A

Moral life lived accordingly to reason
Humans have rational will
Ultimate goal is Our heavenly home and union with God and earthly life is a taste of heavenly happiness

48
Q

What are the five primary precepts

A
To worship God
Ordered society
To reproduce
To educate the young
The preservation of life
49
Q

What is the humans purpose

A

Human flourishing and god like perfection - telos
union with God - beatific bison
“Man needs to be directed to his supernatural end and a higher way”

50
Q

Aquinas on sexuality and efficient and final cause

A

An efficient cause - sex for enjoyment
Final cause - procreation
Therefore sec is only good if procreation is possible

51
Q

What did Aquinas say mans first rule was

A

Self preservation

52
Q

Why are they called primary?

A

Idea of basic key natural and foundation laws
The laws that come first and help us to discover the secondary precepts
True to everybody without exception

53
Q

Define primary precepts

A

Acts that accord with the main human purpose are good

The five primary precepts can be made to make deontological rules

54
Q

What are the secondary precepts

A

Rulings about things that we should or shouldn’t do because they uphold or fail to uphold the primary precepts they can be flexible in how they are applied

55
Q

Give some examples of secondary precepts for preservation of life

A

Wrong to murder
Wrong to abort
Wrong to commit suicide

56
Q

Give some examples of secondary precepts for reproduction

A

Don’t masturbate
Don’t use contraception
Don’t have homosexual sex

57
Q

Examples of secondary precepts for educating children

A

Wrong for children to not go to school
Divorce is wrong
Non Christian representative parents is wrong

58
Q

Examples of secondary precepts for living in society

A

Wrong to steal
Wrong to commit adultery
Must treat others equally

59
Q

Examples for worshipping God (secondary precepts)

A

Children must be taught to worship god

Must remember sabbath day

60
Q

Why is masturbation wrong in the eyes on Aquinas

A

One cannot reproduce through it

61
Q

Why does Aquinas see abortion as wrong

A

Stops reproduction

Kills the foetus does not preserve innocent life

62
Q

Why does Aquinas see adultery as wrong

A

Goes against welfare of children

Children born from affairs may lack that permanent father and won’t be properly educated

63
Q

Link cultural relativism to polygamy

A

Some people think it’s acceptable because it is natural in some countries. Leads to reproduction and possible education of children

Aquinas would argue it goes against laws of nature. As it goes against the monogamous nature of marriage relationship reflected between Christ and his church

64
Q

Intrinsic good

A

Something that is ethically good in and of itself

65
Q

Virtue

A

A quality or trait in a person held to be of moral value

66
Q

Paul’s quote that recognised that following the natural law is not always possible

A

Since all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of god

67
Q

Why is it accepted that humans will sometimes fall short of gods best for them

A

This is a fallen world

Humans violated their perfect relationship with God and the natural order was instituted at the creation.

68
Q

Aquinas view on humans and attempting to always choose good

A

Believes that human nature is essentially good (NML in everyone)
Humans oriented towards achievement of perfection
Never knowingly choose evil

69
Q

Quote for apparent good

A

A fornicator seeks a pleasure which involves him in moral guilt

70
Q

The human mindset and apparent goods

A

Humans naturally strive for perfection

Humans would never knowingly Pursue evil

When people do choose evil they are following an apparent good

It’s just an error of judgment

Human nature is essentially good

71
Q

Aquinas explains why sometimes people use their reason incorrectly

A

People may follow “apparent good “which seems to be a good action but in reality goes against the precepts

The only real good are actions that abide by the precepts

72
Q

Hitler and real and apparent goods

A

Hitler was persuaded that Jews were not really human beings and were evil so rationalise the murder of the 6 million Jews
He thought his actions supported the good of creating a better Germany

Most Nazis would’ve been horrified at the suggestion that they were engaged in cold blooded mass murder on the grounds of irrational prejudice

They believed they were pursuing an apparent good although mistaken there was reasoning

73
Q

Quick definition of real goods

A

Using reason to make decisions that will lead us to a purpose union with God

74
Q

Quick definition on apparent goods

A

Decisions that make seem pleasurable but is actually taking us away from a purpose

75
Q

Give some examples of apparent good

A

Lying to protect someone’s feelings

Sleeping with somebody that you love before marriage

Stealing a present for somebody else

76
Q

What is sin

A

Falling short of gods intentions for humans to choose an apparent good is an error because it is not morally good for us

77
Q

Using adultery explain real and apparent goods

A

The adulterer commits adultery because they believe that it is good
This is an error reason
Because this prevents the human from drawing close to what God intended

78
Q

define the cardinal virtues

A

Aquinas selected four virtues listed by aristotle that he accepted as the foundation of natural morality

79
Q

List the four cardinal virtues

A

Prudence (practical wisdom)
Justice (fairness)
Fortitude (courage)
Temperance (self control)

80
Q

What do the cardinal virtues allow for

A

Allowed yourself to fulfil its purpose of telos and flourish
Prudence is the chief amongst the virtues for the ability to understand the situation and to use practical reason to work out what to do is the base of natural moral law 

81
Q

List the three Christian theological virtues

A

Faith hope and love

82
Q

Where did the theological virtues come from

A

Given to humans through gods grace

83
Q

Explain the theological virtue of faith

A

Refers to belief in God and belief in what he has revealed in scripture

84
Q

Explain the theological virtues of hope

A

Hope of heaven and the beatific vision

85
Q

Explain thw theological virtue of love

A

Charity
Love of god
Love of all things
Love everybody

86
Q

Quote from Paul’s letter to the colossians about virtues

A

Binds everything together in perfect harmony

87
Q

What must the virtues become for an individual to adhere NML

A

Habitual

88
Q

What did Aquinas mean by interior and exterior acts

A

Both intention and the act important

To act in a good way for the wrong reasons is a good exterior act but a bad interior act

God knows genuine intentions so everything should be done out of charity

89
Q

Give an example of a good exterior act that bad interior act

A

To help an old lady across the road to impress someone

90
Q

Quote That supports interior like to acts

A

So when you give to the needy do not announce it with trumpets as the hypocrite to do

91
Q

Give an example of a good intention but a bad action

A

To steal money to give it to your friend the theft isn’t made good by the intention to help a friend

92
Q

Why can’t physical pleasures be the final end

A

Because animals can experience them

Academic pleasures aren’t accessible to everyone so the ultimate aim open to all humans is God

93
Q

What did Aquinas believed that the interior motive

A

Act in accordance with that ultimate purpose should be given glory to God

94
Q

Give three examples that go against Aquinas belief that humans never choose evil just apparent goods

A

Rape
terrorist attacks
the Holocaust

95
Q

Define double effect

A

To do something morally good that has a morally bad side-effects is ethically okay as long is the bad side effect wasn’t intended
It is also okay to foresee the bad effect

96
Q

Quote On double effect and who is it by

A

Reason can discover the right action in every situation

Pojman 

97
Q

Using a mugger attack explain double effect

A

A mugger attacks you with a knife

You defend yourself in fear for your life (preservation of life)

You intended to save your life

The muggers death was unintended

98
Q

Use the example of an ectopic pregnancy and double effect

A

A fertilised egg is implanted in a woman’s fallopian tube rather than the womb

This is fatal for the fetus and if left untreated will be fatal for the mother too

A doctor removes the woman’s ovary to save her life so they are following the first precept

The accidental consequence is that the fetus dies

However this is still acceptable

99
Q

What are the four conditions of double effect which make it morally permissible

A

The nature of the act
The means end
The right intention
Proportionality

100
Q

Explain the nature of the act as one of the conditions for double effect

A

Action must be morally good or neutral

101
Q

Explain the means end as one of the four Conditions of double effect

A

The bad action cannot be the reason for the good affect

The bad effect has to be unintentional

102
Q

Explain the right intention as one of the four conditions of double effect

A

The intention was to only be to achieve the good effect
The actions arent moral if the bad effect is needed to bring the good affect
Bad act can be foreseen but not intended

103
Q

Explain proportionality as one of the four conditions of double effect

A

The good affect must be equivalent in importance to the bad affect

104
Q

Using the example of a terminally ill patient whose death is brought sooner via doctors increasing doses to control the pain examine the four conditions of double effect

A

Nature of act – reduces pain so good

Means end – early death of patient is bad but isn’t the reason the patient relief is achieved

Right intention – intention is to relieve suffering the death occurring soon isn’t the intention but it is foreseen

Proportionality – the good effect (relief of pain) is equivalent in importance

105
Q

According to Aquinas how would lying breach the primary precepts

A

Lying breach is the primary precepts of order society

He viewed all forms of lying is wrong even though is intended to save a life

106
Q

Are there any instances of exceptions with Aquinas and lying

A

No lying contravenes both the divine law and the cardinal virtues of courage and justice
lying goes against your reason because we are naturally creatures of truth

107
Q

How could we apply lying to the idea of double effect with Aquinas

A

Aquinas believed that keeping back the truth was morally permissible if it was necessary

108
Q

What is Aquinas mean by keeping back the truth

A

If a murderer came in and said where is Amy with the intention to kill her
You could respond saying I’ve seen her in the last 10 minutes
Therefore you aren’t lying but you aren’t exactly saying when you saw them

109
Q

According to Aquinas How would theft breach the primary precepts

A

Theft can be accepted if used to preserve life

As this is the key and most important rule

110
Q

Do you think there are any instances or exceptions where Aquinas will accept theft

A

Proportionalism Would rule that the intention behind the theft was good
eg to save life
and that the value of saving life is proportionately greater than injustice of theft

111
Q

How can we apply the idea of double effect to the issue of theft

A

Could be seen as practising the cardinal virtues of justice and the theological virtues of love

112
Q

What does casuistry mean

A

From the Latin casus, ‘case’ so case law

The Catholic manuals are complications of casuistry

113
Q

Definition of manualism

A

In the Catholic Church the tradition of producing manuals for use in Catholics seminaries to train clergy in applying natural moral law to difficult cases

114
Q

How did natural moral law become fully deontological

A

Manualists were producing moral rule books

115
Q

What’s the difference between Aquinas NML and the churches

A

Catholic natural moral law is more concerned with rules that it forgets the principles and virtues

Manualists in their work cut out Aquinas’ accountS of virtues

Manualisms amounted to a considerable narrowing of the scope of Aquinas’ natural moral law

116
Q

In recent decades what has changed in Catholicism manualism

A

Renewal of interest in Aristotle’s virtue ethics
1992 Pope John Paul II summarise beliefs with reference to Cardinal and theological virtues
Another sign of a more flexible approach to the natural moral law and the Catholic Church

117
Q

How was proportionism originated

A

Originated from catholic scholars in Europe in America

Arose from increasing concern that catholic tradition was too deontologically rigid

118
Q

How does proportionalism respond to natural law

A

Working within a framework without insisting on fixed inflexible and absolute interpretation of a greater good
Where proportionate reasoning exists it would be right to ignore the rule in that situation

119
Q

What are the two things proportionalism considers

A

The intention of the moral agent

The value of the good effect weighed against the disvalue of the bad effect

120
Q

Proportionalist quote 

A

What the proportionalists have done is point out the inconsistency and invalidity of such thinking

121
Q

what is proportionalism

A

When the intention is considered in order to decide whether or not something is morally right
Reason is based on the uniqueness of an individual situation
It is deemed acceptable to break any precepts as long as the good that comes from that outweighs the bad

122
Q

Discussed lying with proportionalism

A

Acceptable to lie in order to save somebody’s life
Although Aquinas considered lying
unlawful

However Aquinas considered a starving man breaking the secondary precepts to steal as lawfully permissible because he was saving his life
Aquinas seems to be very hypocritical and argument makes very little sense

123
Q

How is proportionalism different to double effect

A

Proportionalism more lenient. The act itself can be bad to bring a good consequence.
For example having an abortion to save the mother

Whereas principle of double effect says that no matter what a bad act cannot be performed even to bring about a good consequence. However a good act with a foreseeable consequence is okay.
For example performing surgery to remove cancerous cells on a mother which leads to the termination of the pregnancy is okay. Because their intention was to save the mother

124
Q

What are ontic evils

A

Ontic Evil is the belief that there is a lack of perfection that exists in the world; due to ‘the fall’.​

Given that there is Ontic Evil in the world, Proportionalists would also consider the intention, the situation, and the consequences of the moral action – before deciding whether the act was an evil moral act.​

125
Q

What is the just water theory

A

Set of conditions that must be met in order for war to be justified and proportionate

126
Q

How does the Catholic Church respond to proportionalism

A

Condemned by Catholic Church they view it as a weak theory
Pope John Paul II stated proportionalism is wrong on the grounds that it denies that any action can in and of itself be intrinsically evil
Eg rape and child torture
Thus the possibility of intrinsic good and evil must be taken seriously

127
Q

What’s the churches view on intrinsic evils

A

Maintains that good consequences do not justify intrinsic evils
For example population control through artificial contraception

128
Q

Strengths of proportionalism

A

Allows a more compassionate stance and takes into account modern issues

Allows individuals to be a total mess and is based on common sense within the framework of natural law

Flexible recognises that natural laws must change in accordance with individual circumstances

129
Q

Weaknesses on proportionalism

A

Strongly condemned by Catholic Church, denies that an action can be in and of its self intrinsically evil (child molestering)

Relies on human judgement making it fallible and not following what contended

If the law is natural then how can it be changed it appears to be far too subjective make small decision making unclear

 how can we make accurate predictions about values disvalue and what the outcomes will be

130
Q

Give an example of how proportionAlism is more compassionate

A

Value of allowing contraception in countries where there has been at HIV epidermic. Outweighs the disvalue of the church’s teachings on the final end of reproduction. Saves lives by preventing the spread of a killer disease

131
Q

Give an example of how proportionalism allows individuals to be a Thomas

A

It is common sense to lie in order to save someone’s life which would adhere to the Precept of preserving life

132
Q

Weaknesses of the double effect

A

A logical to say that sacrificing your life to save others is a bad act. It’s heroic loving even. For example a soul to jump on a grenade to save comrades - just like Jesus died to save us

Consequently lists would claim any actual be judged by its results e.g. torture in order to save the execution of 1 million people is valid

Inconsistent thinking – how is stealing allowed to save someone’s life but not lying

Intention shouldn’t be the main focus if an act could lead to a good consequence 

133
Q

Strengths of double effect

A

Torture will never be permissible this seems like a loving concept because it is so inhumane and there is no real sensible answer to make it so

134
Q

Strengths of natural moral law

A

They are common universal rules that everyone can follow in every society regardless of culture

Should be simple to find answers to ethical dilemmas as based on something more concrete rather than personal opinion

Aquinas allows for exceptions to be made if following the doctrine of double effect

135
Q

Weaknesses of natural moral law

A

Outdated in today’s world – a moral system that argues that it is unnatural to be a homosexual or to have sexual pleasure is disregarded in many cultures

Nature changes – evolution = so does natural law change to. Richard Dawkins would argue that there is no God governing creation and everything can be explained in terms of evolution

Aquinas was rather idealistic in his view of human nature by assuming if we do wrong it is because we mistakenly believe we are doing the right thing. Clearly this is not the case. It’s difficult to accept that the rapist believe that they are acting morally

136
Q

What does GE Moore say about NML

A

Aquinas talks of real and apparent goods. What is the meaning of goodness. Trying to explain goodness it’s like trying to explain the colour yellow

Highlights a weakness of NML