NMS Thorax and Mediastinum: Lung and Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in NMS Thorax and Mediastinum: Lung and Heart Deck (21):

how common is malignancy of coin lesion in lungs

depends on age: 50% at 50 yo


characteristics of lung lesion on xray that suggests malignancy

poorly defined border, no calcifications


workup of solitary pulmonary nodule found on CXR

CT --> BRONCHOSCOPY (bx lesion) --> MEDIASTINOSCOPY (bx nodes) ? needle bx


what to do with solitary pulm nodule workup showing benign lesion? malignant lesion?

BENIGN: follow with CT in 6-12 months; MALIGNANT: stage, then resect if Stage I/II, chemo/rads if Stage III


how to stage lung cancer? mgmt of each stage

STAGE I: solitary lung cancer (resection) STAGE II: lung cancer + LN in lung (resection) STAGE III: lung cancer + LN in mediastinum or elsewhere (can't resect, need to do chemo/rads)


two big categories of lung cancer; what are differences in mgmt

1) small cell lung cancer: usually presents with mets; so cant resect --> chemo 2) non-small cell lung cancer: often resectable +/- chemorads; usually adeno vs. squamous cell (SCC a/w PTHrp)


how does surgical mgmt of non-small cell lung cancer differ if it involves an airway

if NOT involved airway, can do thoracotomy --> lobectomy; if BRONCHUS involved, need thoracotomy --> pneumonectomy (remove whole lung), can also consider "sleeve lobectomy" = lobectomy + removal of section of bronchus (safer but harder)


what are the sx of pancoast tumor? what is mgmt?

multiple sx: brachial plexus sx, horner's pain from chest wall invasion; usually invasive at time of dx --> tx occurs in 2 phases 1) preop radiation for debulking, followed by 2) surgical resection


what is concern with hemoptysis + atelectasis? what is mgmt?

bronchial obstruction causing infection , decreased lung function; worrisome causes include BRONCHIAL ADENOMA: has malignant potential --> requires lobectomy


tx of mesothelioma

extrapleural pneumonectomy: bad prognosis despite aggressive tx (<1 yr)


most common cause of nonresolving pneumothorax with chest tube

technical error: improper placement or leak at site of entry --> replace tube


what causes empyema in lung? what bugs? how to treat

pus in pleural cavity: occurs as a complication of pneumonia, usually from S.pneumo/gram neg rods; tx in 3 steps: 1) abx 2) drainage 3) reinflate lung (CT usually sufficient, but may need minithoracotomy/VATS if loculated)


how does IMA (internal mammary artery) compare to other vessels for CABG

best patency rate (90% at 10 yrs)


what are risks of cardiopulmonary bypass

causes a generalized inflammatory response which can lead to hemorrhagic, respiratory, and myocardial complications in postop period


in what cases does aortic valve stenosis require surgery? how do you determine patient's operative candidacy?

if SEVERE and symptomatic (angina, syncope, dyspnea/CHF, etc.) , base operative candidacy on cath results, NOT AGE


what is prognosis for dilated cardiomyopathy? how do you treat

1/3 do better, 1/3 do worse, 1/3 stay the same; tx with beta blockers (decreased demand) and, if necessary, heart transplant


causes of death following heart transplant (2)

1) infection 2) atherosclerosis (a type of chronic rejection)


Most common mediastinal tumors

thymoma, teratoma, lymphoma, germ cell tumor (in young patients)


3 areas of mediastinum and common masses in each

SUPEROANTERIOR: thymoma, lymphoma MIDDLE: cysts, lymphoma POSTERIOR: neurogenic tumors, cysts


treatment of cysts in mediastinum. why?

cysts are benign but may have inflammatory complications including fistula --> NEED TO BE REMOVED


for which thyroid cancers do you use I131 or thyroid hormone suppression postop?

follicular and papillary; doesnt help for medullary since thats parafollicular (C-cell) hyperplasia