Describe type 1 non-unions:
1? with an 2?
In this case, the mechanical stability is achieved by 3?
1. Hypertrophic 2. elephant's foot-like shape or a horizontal rim or stabalising shelf
Type 2 non-unions are 1?
in which a purely axial compression would generate 2?
1. more complex fractures, oblique with large fragments
2. torsional or cutting force with a consequential negative
Type 3 non-unions:
Have serious 1? which often result 2?
1. communition or atrophy of the stumps
2. from exposed fractures with bone loss or post-infection consequences
Type 4 non-union:
Type 4 non-union are 1?
The dominating choice of action is 2?
1. infected fractures
2. the removal of infected area
What are different non-union types?
A hypertrophic nonunion presents with 1?
On radiogrpahs, the hypertrophic non-union displays as 2?
Healing potential 3?
1. Large, vital callus, although inefficient to regenerate bony union
2. Large, broaden callus towards the fracture gap
Elephant foot non-union
3. Excellent healing potential because of their vascularity
As a result of 1?
In radiological images, the atrophic non-union demonstrates as 2? 3? 4?
Healing potential 5?
1. Damaged vascular supply and distruction of periosteum and endosteum
2. Absence of Callus tissue 3. narrowing of bony ends 4. large radiolucent zone
5. because of their poor vascularity, they have a poor healing potential
In type 1 non-union, 1? may be used
How many months is considered for non-union?
What factors result in Elephant foot non-union or hypertrophic?
1. Insecure fixation
2. Inadequate immobalisation
3. Premature weight-bearing
These are hypertrophic and rich in callus.
What factors contribute in formation of Horse foot non-unions?
After a moderately unstable fixation with plates and screws.
The end fragments show some callus, insufficient for union and possibly a little sclerosis.
These are usually the final result when intermediate fragments are missing and scar tissues that lacks osteogenic potential