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Defined as the production of leukocytes



What is the word to describe the protein that transforms an immature cell into a more mature form by undergoing physical and chemical changes induced by specific poietin or growth hormones?



List the cytokines and hormones that have been identified as having leukopoietin activities:

Interleukins 1 to 19(IL-1 to IL-19
GM-CSF (granulocyte/monocyte - colony stimulating factor)
G-CSF (granulocyte - colony stimulating factor)
M-CSF (macrophage - colony stimulating factor)


Production of chemical mediators and antibodies by lymphocytes, plasma cells, granulocytes, monocytes and macrophages, which result in: (2 things)

1) Phagocytosis of foreign antigen that is labelled by antibodies
2) Lysis of foreign and infected body cells by direct killing mechanisms


____________ are the primary source for humoral immune responses

B Lymphocytes


____________ are responsible for cellular immune responses and are involved in the regulation of antibody reactions by either helping or suppressing the activation of B lymphocytes.

T Lymphocytes


_____________ lack B or T cell surface marks and are part of innate immunity, (2 types)

Null cells (third population cells)


Antibody-dependent cell mediated lysis?

Killer cells


Direct cytotoxic activity?

Natural Killer cells


What kind of cell is described in the following sentences?
1) They are resting cells that when stimulated undergo mitosis to produce memory and effortor cells.
2) They recirculate from the blood to the tissues and back to the blood.
3) B and T cells are able to rearrange antigen receptor gene segments to produce a variety of antibodies and surface receptors.
4) T cells and Null cells develop and mature outside of the bone marrow.

How lymphocytes differ from the other leukocytes


Stem cells under the influence of _________ __________ differentiate into the ______________, which then matures in several different environments (primary and secondary).

Interleukins (IL1 and IL6)
Lymphoid stem cell (CFU-L)


Bone marrow and the thymus produce lymphocytes, promote differentiation and do not require antigenic stimulation. Stem cells from the ________ multiply and differentiate under the influence of cytokines to become __________, while those from the _______ _____________ become ________, each with their own function.

This is called _________ Lymphoid tissue

Bone marrow



This tissue includes the lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (ex. Peyers patches, tonsils). Reproduction of lymphocytes is predominantly dependent on antigenic stimulation (an active immune response). Secondary lymphoid tissue acts as the main storage areas of already differentiated lymphocytes. This is called ____________ Lymphoid Tissue.



The stages of lymphocyte development are __________, _______________ and ___________.

Lymphoblast, prolymphocyte, and lymphocyte.


Adult normal value for lymphocytes is ___ - ___with approximately ____-____ being T cells and ____-_____ B cells.

20-40 percent
60-80 percent
20-35 percent