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Who was Harold Hardrada?

King of Norway and Denmark


Was William of Normandy a Duke or a King?



Name the four men who wanted to take the English Throne when Edward the Confessor died in 1066?

Harold Godwinson
Harold Hardrada
William of Normandy
Prince Edgar


Who was Harold Godwin

King of England, previously Earl of Wessex


Who was Prince Edgar

Edgar of Atheling


What were Harold Hardrada's claims to the throne?

Claimed to be true heir to Canute
Supported by Harold Godwin's brother, Tostig, who said he would supply army and ships to help him dethrone Harold Godwin


Who was Harold Godwin's brother?



What was against Harold Hardrada's claim to the throne?

He was in Norway, not English.
Harold Godwin was the favourite.
If he invaded England it would renew the old wars between Danes and English.


Who was the king of England that died in 1016

Ethelred the Unready, Father of Edward the Confessor


Who took over from Canute as King of England in 1042?

Edward the Confessor who then died in 1066


What were William of Normandy's claims to the throne?

Claimed that (1) Edward the Confessor had promised him the throne of England - distant relative & (2) Harold Godwin had sworn to back him as king after he saved him from shipwreck.
Experienced commander and had good equipment.
Support of the Pope


What were Harold Godwin's claims to the throne?

Brother in law of Edward the Confessor.
Strong fighting leader.
Very popular with most of the English.
Elected king by Witan


What was against William of Normandy's claims to the throne?

Lived in Normandy so no English supporters.
Harold was already established as king.


What is the Witan?

Saxon council made of bishops, nobles and advisors.


What was against Harold Godwin's claims to the throne?

William's claims that he had promised support to him and that he had sworn on holy relics to do so.
He was not a direct heir, he was only married into it.


What were Prince Edgar's claims to the throne?

Great grandson of Ethelred the Unready &
Grand nephew of Edward the Confessor so direct descendent of the Saxon royal family.


What was against Prince Edgar's claim to the throne?

He was only a young boy.
Brought up in Hungary so no English supporters.


Who were the Normans?

The Normans were originally Vikings.
Came from Northern Europe to France and were nicknamed the Normans.
Given land in the North of France - Normandy.


Where did Harold Hardrada land with his Viking army?

North of England


Who made up Harold's Saxon army?

Bodyguards (housecarls) who fought on foot with axes and ordinary men such as farmers (fyrd) with any weapon they could get.


How far did Harold Godwin and his army have to march to fight Harold Hardrada and how long did it take?

hundreds of miles (210), 5 days


Why did Harold's Godwin's army win?

The Vikings weren't prepared to fight - no armour

300 ships arrived, 24 went home!!


When and where did the the battle with the Vikings take place?

Stamford bridge, 25th September 1066.


Where and when did William land?

South of England, Pevensey, September 29th 1066


What prevented William from invading earlier

Strong winds/weather


What troops did William have in his army?

He had a well equipped army with calvary and knights on horseback, archers with crossbows and troops trained since they were 4! All seasoned warriors.


What was the battle between William and Harold called and where and when did it take place?

Battle of Hastings, 9am, 14th October, 1066 in east Sussex.


What is a shield wall?

When shields are locked together as one big shield wall.


Who used a shield wall and why was it initially so effective?

The Saxons and they where on top of a hill and the Normans could not charge up the hill.


What tactics did Normans use?

The Normans pretended to run away to get some of the Saxons to follow him and break down the shield wall. The men that followed were cut down by the Norman Knights. William then used his archers to shoot arrows over the top of the shield wall.