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Flashcards in Nose Conditions Deck (27)
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1

What is implied if symptoms are unilateral?

More likely to be an anatomical abnormality

2

Rhinitis - definition

Irritation and inflammation of the mucous membranes inside the nose

3

Rhinitis - 2 main types

Infective
Non-infective

4

Rhinitis - infective cause

URTI

5

Rhinitis - non-infective causes

Allergic
-intermittent
-persistent

Non-allergic
- nasal polyps

6

Rhinitis - clinical features

Nose blockage
Lots of mucous is produced
Loss of smell
Nasal discharge
Facial pain
Secondary symptoms
- dry mouth
- sore throat
- hallitosis
- snoring
- loss of taste

7

Rhinitis - non infective, allergic rhinitis

Skin prick test
RAST

8

Rhinitis - management (infective)

Nasal decongestant
Analgesia

9

Rhinitis - management (noninfective - allergic)

Allergen avoidance
Anti-histamines
Topical steroids
Immunotherapy
Surgery

10

Rhinitis - complications

Nasal polyps

11

Sinusitis - definition

Inflammation of the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses
Sinus becomes filled of infected mucous

12

Sinusitis - which sinus is most commonly affected?

Maxillary sinuses
- the maxillary sinus ostia is located superiorly which means that the mucous has to drain against gravity

13

Sinusitis - causes

Infection
Allergy
Autoimmune issues
Dental abscesses

14

Sinusitis - clinical features

Sinus pain
Mild discomfort over frontal and maxillary sinuses due to congestion
May have referred pain to the teeth (if maxillary sinusitis due to the common sensory nerve supply from CNV)

15

Sinusitis - which CN's are responsible for the pain?

Sensation provided by CNV1 and CNV2

16

Sinusitis - management

Most are self limiting
Reserve antibiotics for severe cases over 10 day duration
- amoxicillin
- doxycycline

17

Sinusitis - complications

Infections from the ethmoid sinus can give rise to orbital cellulitis

18

Nasal polyps - who gets it?

Common in adults
NOT common in children

19

Nasal polyps - children

If found in children, further investigations are required and think about cystic fibrosis

20

Nasal polyps - what is more worrying: unilateral or bilateral nasal polyps?

Unilateral

21

Nasal polyps - cause

Allergy
Infection
Asthma
Aspirin sensitivity
Nickel exposure

22

Nasal polyps - clinical features

Painless
Very oedematous and inflammatory

23

Nasal polyps - pathology

Lots of white areas (fluid)

24

Nasal polyps - management

Oral steroids -> topical steroids
If this doesn't work, refer for surgery

25

Schneiderian papillomas

Recur often
Can potentially become malignant

26

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma - association

Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)
- infects epithelial cells of oropharynx and B cells

27

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma - investigations

Test for EBV (EBV stains blue)