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A. 1. What's the matter? > Notes > Flashcards

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1

What is matter?

EVERYTHING around us in all its states. it has to have at least some tiny mas and take up at least some space.

2

What is matter made up of?

Atoms and molecules

3

What are sub atomic particles (made up of)?

Protons, electrons, neutrons

4

The unit of stuff has to be able to do what while having the same composition and unit?

Change state

5

What are atoms?

The building blocks to make up all the stuff we see

6

What are elements?

How we find atoms in their pure form in nature

7

What is a molecule?

Two of the same type of atom bonded toghether(O2)

8

What is a compound?

Two or more different elements bonded together. An energy provider molecule.

9

Difference between an element and an atom.

An atom is only one single unit.
An element can be more 1 or more of the pure atom together/bonded.

10

What does the RUTHERFORD model allow?

To see how elements orbit around an atom in 3D.

11

What does the BOHR model allow us to see?

The orbital shells/energy level in 2D

12

Describe the Bohr-Rutherford

Shows nucleus with protons/orbitals only and electrons per shell. May or may not show neutrons. Fills electron shells using 2, 8, 8, 2.

13

Describe the Simplified Atomic Model (SAM)

Shows protons and neutrons in nucleus and electrons per energy level. Fills electron shells using 2, 8, 8, 2.

14

Name the negatively charged, positively charged, and neutral parts of an atom.

Electrons
Protons
Neutrons

15

Describe protons

Positively charged and located at the center of the atom (nucleus)

16

Describe neutrons

Neutrons are neutral and located at the center of the atom (nucleus)

17

Electrons

The tiniest particle, negatively charged and located very far away from the nucleus of the atom

18

Most of the atom is actually what?

Empty space

19

Where does most of the mass of an atom come from?

The nucleus (protons and neutrons)

20

Which sub atomic particles contribute to mass of an atom?

Protons and neutrons

21

What is the atomic number?

Number of protons

22

What is the atomic mass?

Average mass of the atoms in an element (protons + neutrons)

23

The bigger number of an element on a periodic table is what?

The atomic mass

24

What does each letter in A, Z, E notation indicate?

A= Atomic mass
Z= Atomic number
E= Chemical symbol for the element

25

Study AZE

idk, do it

26

Which sub atomic particles determine the element?

Protons

27

Which sub atomic particles determine the atomic number?

Protons

28

Which sub atomic particles determine the atomic mass?

Protons and neutrons

29

Which sub atomic particles must be equal to have a stable atom (not an isotope)

Protons and neutrons

30

What makes an atom of neutral charge?

Equal number of electrons and protons

31

What determines if an element is a +ion?

More protons than electrons

32

What determines if an element is a -ion?

More electrons than protons

33

What is an ion? How does it happen?

A positively or negatively charged particle
Either having more or less protons than electrons.

34

Describe a +ion

More protons than electrons

35

Describe a -ion

More electrons than protons

36

STUDY "Determine The Rules & Patterns of the Periodic Table To identify Each Element"

idk

37

What is an isotope?

An atom of the same element (same number of protons) but a varying number of neutrons

protons stay the same, neutrons change

38

Its radioactive if what?

The number of protons are not equal to the number of neutrons

39

What is relative atomic mass?

An average based on the relative abundance (the abundance of each isotope of an element varies and can be described as a % to calculate the relative atomic mass). This is why you see decimals on the periodic table.

40

Name a radioactive isotope and its uses.

C14
Carbon dating as C14 being unstable over time. See how much is left and can guess age of fossil if its not too old, otherwise no C14 left.
As a cancer treatment as certain radioactive substances can be targeted and will kill cells (both cancerous and not)

41

What are valence electrons used to describe?

Atoms of the same group that share the same number of electrons on their outermost electron shell

42

What do valence electrons determine?

How an atom will chemically interact

43

When is an atom considered unreactive?

When the outermost electron shell is full for that level (2, 8, 8, 2)

44

Which group is not chemically reactive?

Noble gasses

45

Which are the most and second most reactive groups?

Alkali metals
Halogens

46

What is the second group named?

Alkali Earth Metals

47

Which element is not technically part of its group? Why?

H (Hydrogen)
It is a gas in a group of metals
(but it still needs one more electron for perfection so its there anyways)

48

What is the name for the lines on the periodic tables that are horizontal?

PERIODS or rows

49

What is the name for the lines on the periodic tables that are vertical?

GROUPS or columns

50

What do the elements in a period have in common?

The same number of orbital shells

51

What do the elements in a group have in common?

The number of valence electrons

52

PRACTICE DRAWING B-R, AZE, SAM, LEWIS

art.

53

Describe Alkali Metals

Column 1, 1 valence electron, includes H, very reactive (psycho)

54

Describe Alkali Earth Metals

Column 2, 2 valence electrons, reactive

55

Describe Halogens

Column 7, 7 valence electrons, very reactive (psycho)

56

Describe Noble Gases

Column, 8, 8 valence electrons, includes He(2 ve-), "perfect"/STABLE

57

Where are the metals on the periodic table?

To the left of the staircase

58

Describe metals

To the left of the sc.
Malleable
Conduct electricity
Conduct heat
Often shiny
Many react chemically with acids to produce a gas

59

Where are non metals on the periodic table?

To the right of the staircase except for H.
Many are red at rm temp

60

Describe non metals.

Opposite of metals

61

Where are metalloids on the periodic table?

Along the staircase

62

Describe metalloids

At least one characteristic from non metals and metals

63

What does the Lewis structure show?

The element symbol and valence electrons (shown as dots around the symbol)

64

When is the Lewis structure useful?

When we want to see which element would like to group or family would have their outermost electron shell filled if they bonded

65

What is atomic radius?

Size of the atom

66

Across a period/from left to right. how does atomic radius change? Why?

It decreases

When atomic number increases there is more electrostatic charges (more protons and electrons so there is more pull shrinking the overall size of the atom)

67

What is the periodicity of electronegativity?

A measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself when forming a chemical bond

68

How does the periodicity of electronegativity change from left to right?

It increases

69

What makes an atom very reactive

When it is very close to having a full outer shell

70

Is it easier to give away a ve or get one?

Give away

71

from the middle to the right, and from the middle to the left what happens to the periodicity of chemical reactivity?

It increases

72

What is the periodicity of chemical reactivity?

How reactive an element is