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Flashcards in notifiable diseases and immunisations Deck (37):
1

what us a notifiable disease?

- Diseases, infections and conditions specifically listed as
notifiable under the Public Health (Infectious Diseases)
Regulations 1988
- Legal obligation for any doctor that suspects a case to inform
the Proper Officer of the Local Authority

2

you have to wait for lab confirmation before notifying PHE of a pt with a notifiable disease T or F?

F - don't have to wait or lab confirmation

3

give examples of a notifiable disease

acute meningitis
acute polimyelitis
cholera
diptheria
enteric fever
haemolytic uraemic syndrome
leprosy
malaria
measles
mumps
rubella
SARS
whooping cough
TB
infectious bloody diarrhoea
Leginnaires

4

why are some diseases notifiable?

very severe diseases
vaccine preventable diseases
diseases that need specific control measures

5

Why is it important to notify PHE about these diseases?

we can detect changes in a disease ie new outbreaks and can give early warning o people in the surrounding areas, staff and can predict spread
we can track changes in a disease - has the disease got any more severe, are more people getting affected and what are the risk factors

6

How do you notify PHE of a disease?

fill in a form on the GOV website

7

how can we protect the community from notifiable diseases?

investigate - ie contact tracing
identify and protect vulnerable people - ie isolation, immunisation and chemoprophylaxis
exclude high risk people from high risk settings
Educate, inform, raise awareness, health promotion
Coordinate multi-agency responses

8

give examples of diseases to which maternal antibodies are passed onto the foetus

measles
pertussis

9

what diseases do we have methods of passive immunisation against?

tetanus, hepatitis B, rabies and
varicella zoster
measles
hepatitis A.

10

how is passive immunity obtained?

by injection of human immunoglobulin - Human normal immunoglobulin (HNIG) derived from the pooled plasma of
donors and contains antibodies

11

what can vaccines be made from?

inactivated - ie dead pathogens
attenuated life organisms
secreted products eg toxins
constituents of cell walls/ subunits
recombinant proteins

12

which vaccines are killed/inactivated?

pertussis, inactivated polio

13

which vaccines are attenuated live?

yellow fever, MMR, polio, BCG

14

which vaccines contain secreted products?

tetanus, diphtheria toxoids

15

which vaccines contain the constituents of cell walls?

Hep B

16

what are the disadvantages of polysaccaride vaccines?

not as immunogenic as protein antigens.
Protection is not long-lasting
Response in infants and young children often poor.

17

Do live attenuated vaccines work quickly?

no - the live attenuated organism must replicate in the vaccinated individual to produce an immune response and this takes time ie days or weeks

18

what is primary vaccine failure?

person doesn't develop immunity from the vaccine

19

what is secondary vaccine failure?

person develops immunity from the vaccine but this protection wanes over time to below the protective level

20

in what two ways can meningococal infection present?

meningitis or septicaemia

21

what bacterium causes meningococcal infection?

Neisseria meningitidis

22

how is meningiococcal infection spread?

Transmitted from person to person by inhaling
respiratory secretions from the mouth and throat or
by direct contact (kissing)
close prolonged contact is required as it does not live long outside the body

23

at what age do the majority of infections occur of meniniococcal disease?

under 1 is the peak incidence
the majority of infections occurs in children less than 5

24

At what age on the second peak of incidence for meningococcal infection?

young adults -15-19

25

is there seasonal variation with meningococcal infection?

yes in winter there are most cases

26

how are the pathogenic groups of N. meningitidis classified?

done according to the polysaccharide outer capsule and this splits them into serogroups - B, C, A, Y and W135

27

is there a vaccine for N. meningitidis?

yes

28

what are the sequelae of N. meningitidis infection?

o Brain abscess
• Brain damage
• Seizure disorders
• Hearing impairment
• Focal neurological disorders
• Organ failure
• Gangrene
• Auto-amputation
• Death

29

why does gangrene and auto-amuputation occur with N. meningitidis?

as Meningococcaemia causes arterial occlusions

30

what is the clinical management of N. meningitidis infection?

Antibiotic therapy: Cefotaxime or Ceftriaxone

Supportive treatment

31

what would you do if there was a case of suspected meningitis?

all cases of suspected meningitis are notifiable and must be notified without delay

32

what is a contact defined as in meningitis?

a person who has had close contact with a case in the past 7 days

33

what does close contact mean?

kissing
sleeping together
>8 hours in the same room

34

are the cases of meningitis infectious before the onset of symptoms?

yes there is an infectious period before the onset of symptoms

35

what does the incubation period consist of?

the latent period (ie no symptoms and not infectious) and the infectious period (no symptoms and infectious)

36

what forms of prophylaxis are there for contacts who have been exposed to sb with meningitis?

advice - warn them about symptoms and signs, glass test and contact phone number
antibiotic chemoprophylaxis - ie ciprofloxacin or rifampicin
immunisation -

37

is there a meningitis vaccine for travel?

yes - eg for the meningitis belt and other countries which have epidemics