Flashcards in notifiable diseases and immunisations Deck (37):
what us a notifiable disease?
- Diseases, infections and conditions specifically listed as
notifiable under the Public Health (Infectious Diseases)
- Legal obligation for any doctor that suspects a case to inform
the Proper Officer of the Local Authority
you have to wait for lab confirmation before notifying PHE of a pt with a notifiable disease T or F?
F - don't have to wait or lab confirmation
give examples of a notifiable disease
haemolytic uraemic syndrome
infectious bloody diarrhoea
why are some diseases notifiable?
very severe diseases
vaccine preventable diseases
diseases that need specific control measures
Why is it important to notify PHE about these diseases?
we can detect changes in a disease ie new outbreaks and can give early warning o people in the surrounding areas, staff and can predict spread
we can track changes in a disease - has the disease got any more severe, are more people getting affected and what are the risk factors
How do you notify PHE of a disease?
fill in a form on the GOV website
how can we protect the community from notifiable diseases?
investigate - ie contact tracing
identify and protect vulnerable people - ie isolation, immunisation and chemoprophylaxis
exclude high risk people from high risk settings
Educate, inform, raise awareness, health promotion
Coordinate multi-agency responses
give examples of diseases to which maternal antibodies are passed onto the foetus
what diseases do we have methods of passive immunisation against?
tetanus, hepatitis B, rabies and
how is passive immunity obtained?
by injection of human immunoglobulin - Human normal immunoglobulin (HNIG) derived from the pooled plasma of
donors and contains antibodies
what can vaccines be made from?
inactivated - ie dead pathogens
attenuated life organisms
secreted products eg toxins
constituents of cell walls/ subunits
which vaccines are killed/inactivated?
pertussis, inactivated polio
which vaccines are attenuated live?
yellow fever, MMR, polio, BCG
which vaccines contain secreted products?
tetanus, diphtheria toxoids
which vaccines contain the constituents of cell walls?
what are the disadvantages of polysaccaride vaccines?
not as immunogenic as protein antigens.
Protection is not long-lasting
Response in infants and young children often poor.
Do live attenuated vaccines work quickly?
no - the live attenuated organism must replicate in the vaccinated individual to produce an immune response and this takes time ie days or weeks
what is primary vaccine failure?
person doesn't develop immunity from the vaccine
what is secondary vaccine failure?
person develops immunity from the vaccine but this protection wanes over time to below the protective level
in what two ways can meningococal infection present?
meningitis or septicaemia
what bacterium causes meningococcal infection?
how is meningiococcal infection spread?
Transmitted from person to person by inhaling
respiratory secretions from the mouth and throat or
by direct contact (kissing)
close prolonged contact is required as it does not live long outside the body
at what age do the majority of infections occur of meniniococcal disease?
under 1 is the peak incidence
the majority of infections occurs in children less than 5
At what age on the second peak of incidence for meningococcal infection?
young adults -15-19
is there seasonal variation with meningococcal infection?
yes in winter there are most cases
how are the pathogenic groups of N. meningitidis classified?
done according to the polysaccharide outer capsule and this splits them into serogroups - B, C, A, Y and W135
is there a vaccine for N. meningitidis?
what are the sequelae of N. meningitidis infection?
o Brain abscess
• Brain damage
• Seizure disorders
• Hearing impairment
• Focal neurological disorders
• Organ failure
why does gangrene and auto-amuputation occur with N. meningitidis?
as Meningococcaemia causes arterial occlusions
what is the clinical management of N. meningitidis infection?
Antibiotic therapy: Cefotaxime or Ceftriaxone
what would you do if there was a case of suspected meningitis?
all cases of suspected meningitis are notifiable and must be notified without delay
what is a contact defined as in meningitis?
a person who has had close contact with a case in the past 7 days
what does close contact mean?
>8 hours in the same room
are the cases of meningitis infectious before the onset of symptoms?
yes there is an infectious period before the onset of symptoms
what does the incubation period consist of?
the latent period (ie no symptoms and not infectious) and the infectious period (no symptoms and infectious)
what forms of prophylaxis are there for contacts who have been exposed to sb with meningitis?
advice - warn them about symptoms and signs, glass test and contact phone number
antibiotic chemoprophylaxis - ie ciprofloxacin or rifampicin