Flashcards in pathology of tumours of the upper GIT Deck (20):
what happens to the epithelium of the oesophagus in Barrett's oesophagus?
repeated gastro-eosophageal reflux irritates the squamous epithelium of the oesophagus and causes transformation to columnar epithelium of the intestine
what term is used to describe the change in epithelium seen in Barrett's?
What is metaplasia?
change in differentiation of a cell from one fully differentiated cell type to a different fully differentiated cell type
what type of cancer does Barrett's oesophagus predispose to?
what has the trend been in the UK oesophageal cancer incidence?
increase, highest rates in males
describe the changes from a normal oesophageal squamous epithelium to neoplastic oesophageal glandular epithelium
reflux affects normal squamous epithelium
this causes metaplastic glandular epithelium
continuing reflux plus other factors causes dysplastic glandular epithelium
continuing reflux and other factors causes neoplastic glandular epithelium
aka normal - metaplastic - dysplastic - neoplastic
what are the risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus?
what are the risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus?
heavy alcohol intake
these risk factors together are synergistic
what structures are close to the oesophagus that could be affected by carcinoma?
do people with oesophageal cancer tend to present late or early and how does this affect 5 year survival?
the older sb presents with oesophageal cancer, the poorer their 5 yr survival
what has the trend been in the UK concerning gastric cancer?
incidence has decreased (could be that some cancers that were once classed as gastric cancers are now glassed as oesophageal and could also contribute to the rise o=in oesophageal cancers)
where in the world is gastric cancer most common?
what type of foods predispose to gastric cancer?
what age to people usually get gastric cancer?
disease of older age
after the age of 40
what other factors apart from food could lead to gastric cancer?
what are the stages of changes from normal gastric mucosa to invasive carcinoma?
normal gastric mucosa - intestinal metaplasia - dysplasia - intramucosal carcinoma - invasive carcinoma
what is linitus plastica?
diffuse spread of cancer cells in the stomach making the wall of the stomach very thick and fibrosed
what is in situ cancer of the stomach?
cancer that is contained within the gastric mucosa
what is early gastric cancer?
cancer of the stomach that has not spread to the muscular wall (muscularis propria)
it can spread to the lymph nodes, but just not to the muscular wall to be called early