- a variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another.
- Example: level of sleep disturbance, amt of narcotic
- Does not depent on the value of another
- Example: Log, Actigrophy, sex of the patient
What is a literature review
Identifies the gap in the literature
What is Descriptive?
prevalence, magnitude or characteristics of the problem
Correlation, the look at why
look at what will occur if rrelated factors change
What is a sample design
process of selecting a unit of a population for a study in a research investigation
What does a sample design do?
estimates or predicts a fact or outcome
What is a population
any one in the world who meet criteria for the people to be studied (Non small cell lung cancer patients)
What is a source population
a subset of the population, a smaller geographical area (medical center in northern Taiwan)
What is a sampling frame?
complete list of the units of the source of the population (target population).
What is eligibility criteria
- characteristics that restrict the population to a homogenous group of subjects (subgroups)
- Example: gender, age, socioeconomic status, education
3 Properties that make up true experimental design?
What is a research study using a true experimental design called?
- homogenous sample
- consistent data collection procedures
- one or more constants
- one receive manipulation, one doesnt (placebo)
some subjects receive the intervention. i.e. "manipulation"
get different treatments, cause/effect relationship
- One variable has not been manipulated or controlled (because it cannot be)
- cause/effect relationship, less powerful than 'experimental'
- Discover new meaning (RELATIONSHIP)
- Describe what already exists
- measure the r/t btwn 2+ variables
- Outcome: hypothesis for future research, tentative explanations
Cross Sectional Data
collected at one point in time
collected at several point in time
Name 3 data collection methods
- Self Report (Interview, questionnaire)
What 2 theses are measured in instruments
reliability and validity
What is reliability
- repeated measurments would vive the same result.
- Tool used to measure is consistent
What is Validity
- Whether is measures what it's purpose is to measure
- measurment is accurate
What are descriptive statistics?
summarize, measure of central tendency, variability, correlation
What are inferential statistics?
predict, generalize, answer research questions, used to draw a conclusion
In descriptive statistics, what can frequencies be converted to?
What does "measures of central tendency mean"
mean, median,, mode
In descriptive statistics, what is dispersion of spread?
range, variance, standard deviation
In descriptive statistics, what is measures of shape
distribution (symmetry) or Kurtosis (height)
Standard Deviation measures
how far from the mean (how far from normal)
area under the curve
What 2 hypothesis are tested in inferential statistics?
research/scientific hypothesis, null hypothesis
In probability, what is the level of significance?
- p value (.01 or .05). the lower the p value, the more significant the result
- probabilyt of null hypothesis being true
Type I Error
- the incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis (a "false positive"
- Reject null hypothesis
- detecting an effect that is not present
Type II Error
- failure to reject a false null hypothesis
- failing to detect an effect that is present
Two Group Test is
More than 2 groups test is
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)