Dependent variable

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- a variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another.
- Example: level of sleep disturbance, amt of narcotic

Independent Variable

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- Does not depent on the value of another
- Example: Log, Actigrophy, sex of the patient

What is a literature review

Identifies the gap in the literature

What is Descriptive?

prevalence, magnitude or characteristics of the problem

Exploratory is

phenomena

Explanatory is

Correlation, the look at *why*

Predictive/Controlling

look at what will occur if rrelated factors change

What is a sample design

process of selecting a unit of a population for a study in a research investigation

What does a sample design do?

estimates or predicts a fact or outcome

What is a population

any one in the world who meet criteria for the people to be studied (Non small cell lung cancer patients)

What is a source population

a subset of the population, a smaller geographical area (medical center in northern Taiwan)

What is a sampling frame?

complete list of the units of the source of the population (target population).

What is eligibility criteria

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- characteristics that restrict the population to a homogenous group of subjects (subgroups)
- Example: gender, age, socioeconomic status, education

3 Properties that make up true experimental design?

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- randomization
- control
- manipulation

What is a research study using a true experimental design called?

RCT

Control group

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- homogenous sample
- consistent data collection procedures
- one or more constants
- one receive manipulation,
**one doesnt** (placebo)

**one doesnt**(placebo)Experimental group

some subjects receive the intervention. i.e. "manipulation"

Experimental Design

get different treatments, cause/effect relationship

Quasi Experimental

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- One variable has not been manipulated or controlled (because it cannot be)
- cause/effect relationship, less powerful than 'experimental'

Non Experimental

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- Discover new meaning (RELATIONSHIP)
- Describe what already exists
- measure the r/t btwn 2+ variables
- Outcome: hypothesis for future research, tentative explanations

Cross Sectional Data

collected at one point in time

Longitudinal study

collected at several point in time

Name 3 data collection methods

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- Self Report (Interview, questionnaire)
- Observation
- Biophysiology

What 2 theses are measured in instruments

reliability and validity

What is reliability

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- repeated measurments would vive the same result.
- Tool used to measure is
*consistent*

*consistent*What is Validity

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- Whether is measures what it's purpose is to measure
- measurment is accurate

What are descriptive statistics?

summarize, measure of central tendency, variability, correlation

What are inferential statistics?

predict, generalize, answer research questions, used to draw a *conclusion*

In descriptive statistics, what can frequencies be converted to?

percentages

What does "measures of central tendency mean"

mean, median,, mode

In descriptive statistics, what is dispersion of spread?

range, variance, standard deviation

In descriptive statistics, what is measures of shape

distribution (symmetry) or Kurtosis (height)

Standard Deviation measures

how far from the mean (how far from normal)

Normal distribution

area under the curve

What 2 hypothesis are tested in inferential statistics?

research/scientific hypothesis, null hypothesis

In probability, what is the level of significance?

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- p value (.01 or .05). the
**lower** the p value, the **more** significant the result
- probabilyt of null hypothesis being true

**lower**the p value, the**more**significant the resultType I Error

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- the incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis (a "false positive"
- Reject null hypothesis
- detecting an effect that is not present

Type II Error

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- failure to reject a false null hypothesis
- failing to detect an effect that is present

Two Group Test is

T-Test

More than 2 groups test is

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)