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Flashcards in NRM Past Present and Future Deck (18)
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The first duty of the human race is to control the earth it lives upon” Known for reforming the management and development of forests in the United States and for advocating the conservation of the nation's reserves by planned use and renewal. He called it "the art of producing from the forest whatever it can yield for the service of man." Coined the term conservation ethic as applied to natural resources. Main contribution was his leadership in promoting scientific forestry and emphasizing the controlled, profitable use of forests and other natural resources so they would be of maximum benefit to mankind. He was the first to demonstrate the practicality and profitability of managing forests for continuous cropping.



An influential Scottish-American naturalist, author, environmental philosopher, glaciologist and early advocate for the preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books describing his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada, have been read by millions. His activism has helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and many other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he co-founded, is a prominent American conservation organization.



The country's first environmentalist president. In 1906, he signed the National Monuments Act, protecting sites like the Grand Canyon and preserving countless wildlife sanctuaries, national forests and federal game reserves. He also made headway with the nation’s infrastructure, instigating 21 federal irrigation projects.



On April 5, 1933, one month after he became President, he signed Executive Order 6101 (Emergency Conservation Work Act) creating the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). This act addressed two pressing needs, unemployment and the repair of environmental damage, with one of the most successful New Deal programs



A Sand County Almanac-was a conservationist, forester, philosopher, educator, writer, and outdoor enthusiast. Among his best known ideas is the “land ethic,” which calls for an ethical, caring relationship between people and nature. Sustainable ethics and 5 operating principles under the 4 directive principles: 1) Earth’s resources are limited 2) humans are a part of nature 3) the key to success is cooperation with nature 4) natural systems are essential to human welfare.



an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. Began her career as an aquatic biologist in the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s.Although Silent Spring was met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides. It also inspired a grassroots environmental movement that led to the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.[



Scientist, explorer, thorough cartographic and scientific investigation of the Green and Colorado rivers in the southwestern United States, including the first recorded passage of white men through the entirety of the Grand Canyon.



Letters and Notes on the Customs and Manners of the North American Indians noted painter of the American Indian, first expressed the national park idea. On a trip to the Dakotas in 1831, Became concerned about the westward movement's effects on Indian civilization, wildlife, and wilderness.



Work relief program that gave millions of young men employment on environmental projects during the Great Depression. Considered by many to be one of the most successful of Roosevelt’s New Deal programs, planted more than three billion trees and constructed trails and shelters in more than 800 parks nationwide during its nine years of existence. Helped to shape the modern national and state park systems we enjoy today.



Declared that the federal government bore permanent responsibility for reducing water and wind erosion of the nation's soils. Included more than ten thousand permanent and part-time employees and utilized the labor of some 450 Civilian Conservation Corps units. Operated twenty-three research stations, where it studied the causes, extent, and prevention of soil erosion. Headed by Hugh Hammond Bennett, addressed the problem of soil erosion by creating "demonstration projects" in which the Service cooperated with landowners to implement conservation measures. Urged farmers and ranchers voluntarily to plant ground cover vegetation to protect vulnerable soils, to rotate crops and allow fields to occasionally lie fallow, to build terraces and use contour plowing to retain soil moisture, and to refrain from planting crops on highly erodible land.



June 8, 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt signed this into law, thus establishing the first general legal protection of cultural and natural resources in the United States. It set important precedents, including the assertion of a broad public interest in archeology on public lands, as well as support for the care and management of archeological sites, collections, and information. Linked the protection of sites and their appropriate, scientific excavation with public programs to care for and provide public interpretation of artifact collections and information from the study of a site and its contents.

Antiquities Act of 1906


Established by Franklin Roosevelt which completed the National Resources Inventory. Identified serious resource problems plaguing the country and described methods for solving them.

Natural Resources Board 1934


Was a bold experiment unique in conservation to integrate the use of the resources (water soil forest wildlife) of an entire river basin. Controversial but acclaimed and has served as a model for similar projects in India and other nations.

Tennessee Valley Authority 1933


Written by Howard Zahniser of The Wilderness Society. It created the legal definition of wilderness in the United States and protected 9.1 million acres (37,000 km²) of federal land. The result of a long effort to protect federal wilderness and to create a formal mechanism for designating wilderness, was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 3, 1964 after over sixty drafts and eight years of work. When Congress passed and President Lyndon Johnson signed it on September 3, 1964, it created the National Wilderness Preservation System.

Wilderness Act of 1964


A United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. As with many other major U.S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in coordination with state, local, and tribal governments.



An agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. President Richard Nixon proposed it's establishment and it began operation on December 2, 1970, consolidating pertinent federal research, monitoring, standard-setting and enforcement activities into one agency that ensures environmental protection.

EPA 1970


Its objective is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters by preventing point and non-point pollution sources, providing assistance to publicly owned treatment works for the improvement of waste water treatment, and maintaining the integrity of wetlands. It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws. As with many other major U.S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in coordination with state governments.



A resource which can be used repeatedly and replaced naturally. They can only be reused if managed properly. The five major renewable energy resources are solar, wind, water (hydro), biomass, and geothermal.