NS infection - Important Vaccines Flashcards Preview

Yr 3 Infection > NS infection - Important Vaccines > Flashcards

Flashcards in NS infection - Important Vaccines Deck (13):

How does polyomyelitis work?

Its an enterovirus (Type 1, 2, 3) that infects anterior horn cells of LMNs causing Asymmetric Flaccid paralysis (mainly in legs)


What type of poliomyelitis is used in the vaccine?

Trick question its all 3


How does Rabies work?

transmitted by bite of saliva in open lesion

Neurotropic, so the virus gets into PNS and migrates to the CNS

- Paraesthesia at site of lesion
- Asc. Paralysis
- Encephalitis


How do we diagnose Rabies?

PCR or Serology
These only work after the clinical disease is already apparant


How does the rabies vaccine work and who gets it in the UK?

Active immunisation using the killed virus.

Given to:
- Bat Handlers
- Handlers of imported animals
- Travellers to enzootic areas


How do we treat Rabies after exposure?

# Wash the wound
# Give the Active Rabies Immunisation (Vaccine)
# Give Passive Immunisation (Human Rabies Immunoglobulin) if at high risk


How does Tetanus work?

Clostridium Tetani (Anaerobic Gram +ve Baccilus)

Toxins block inhibition at NMJ causing rigidity and spasm


How do we prevent Tetanus?

Toxoid Immunisation

Penicillin & Immunoglobulin for high risk patients after exposure


How does botulism work?

Clostridium Botulinum (Anaerobic Gram +ve Bacillus)

Neurotoxin binds irreversibly to presynaptic membranes of NMJ & Autonomic junctions,
This blocks Ach release and they wont recover till new axons sprout


How is Clostridium Botulinum transmitted to humans?

- Infantile intestinal colonisation
- Food Borne
- Wound (Injecting drugs mainly)


How does Botulism present?

4-14 days incubation then:
- Desc. Symmetrical Flaccid Paralysis
- Incl. Resp Failure
- Autonomic Dysfunction e.g. Pupil Dilation


How do we diagnose Botulism?

- Nerve Conduction Studies
- Culture from wound
- Mouse Neutralisation Bioassay (For toxin in blood)


How do we treat Botulism?

- Anti Toxin (A, B & E)
- Penicillin/Metronidazole (prolonged treatment)
- Radical Wound Debridement