Flashcards in NS Term 4 Deck (25)
The surface of the earth is called the ____.
What are the 4 elements that support life on Earth?
Soil contains ______ that are needed by plants to _____. If there was no soil, there would be no plants. If there was no plants, no ____ _____ would exist, and all the animals would die.
Minerals; grow; food chains
Air contains ______. Without it, most _____ _____ would die.
Oxygen; living things
If there was no water on Earth, living things would ____ ___ and ___.
Dry out; die
Sunlight is our planet's ____ source of ____.
The Earth's crust consists of different _____.
What is the 3 layers that make up land?
Topsoil is the top layer of soil, where ____ grow. Topsoil is made up of small sand grains, ____ and ____ matter, as well as ___ and ____. Topsoil is usually darker than _____. This is caused by plants and animals, both ____ or ____, are found within it.
Plants; plant; animal; air; water; subsoil; living; dead
This layer can be found just ____ the topsoil. It is made up of ____ _____ _____ and some small parts that come from the top soil. Subsoil is usually lighter in colour than ____. The roots of the ____ _____ often grow into subsoil to anchor themselves.
Beneath; bigger rock pieces; topsoil; larger trees
Rocks are big pieces of ____ material. As you go deeper into the Earth, the rock pieces become _____ until they are one solid piece.
Plants anchor their ____ in soil and the roots take up _____ from the soil. Soil contains _______ that are needed by ______ in order to grow and _________. When plants reproduce, they form _____. Each type of plant and animal has its own _______.
Roots; water; minerals; plants; reproduce; seeds; habitat
Life in soil
Animals that can be found in soil are bugs, ____, snails and moles. Earthworms eat ________ plant matter and, along with other creatures, their movement helps _____ the particles. Looser soil particles means that more ____ is available is the soil. These creatures are also a source of food for other _______. Birds and ______ eat _____ and slugs, and bugs can be eaten by _____ and other larger _______.
Slugs; decaying; loosen; air; animals; beetles; worms; birds; mammals
Composition of soil
Soil also contains _________ plant and animal _____. The parts that come from rocks contain ______. The parts that come from plants and animals contain ______.
Decomposing; parts; minerals; nutrients
What are the 3 different types of soil?
1. Sandy soil
3. Loamy soil
1. Sandy soil
Sandy soil has a high ________ of coarse sand grains. There are lots of big ____ particles. This type of soil has a very _____ texture. The spaces between the sand particles are _____ compared to other soil types. This means that sandy soil can hold lots of ____.
Proportion; sand; rough; large; air
Clay soil has a high ________ of _____ grains of clay. Because of the size of the particles, clay has a _____ texture. The spaces between particles are much _____ than sand. There is ____ _____ air inside clayey soil, but it can hold lots of ____.
Proportion; fine; smooth; smaller; very little; water
3. Loamy soil
Loamy soil is a mixture of clay, ____ and other soil grains. The soil has a slightly ____ texture, but not as coarse as sand. The spaces between loamy soil particles are smaller than the spaces of sandy soil. Because of this, loamy soil contains less ____ than sandy soil, but can absorb more ____.
Sand; coarse; air; water
How sedimentary rock forms
Sedimentary rock is formed by the following process:
1. The rocks _____ down into smaller grains. These grains are called ________.
2. Then, mud and sand are moved by ____ and ____.
The ____ and _____ gets deposited in low-lying areas.
3. Over time, new layers of mud and sand are deposited on top of the ____ layers.
4. After a very long time, these layers become ________ and ______ to form sedimentary rock.
Break; sediments; wind; water; mud; sand; existing; compacted; hardened
Shale - Part 1
Shale is clay that has been ______ and turned into rock. It often breaks apart in large, ____ plates.
Sandstone - Part 1
Sandstone is a ___ stone that is formed when sand grains stick ______. It can be deposited in layers of different _____ of sand. Sandstone is very soft and crumbles easily.
Soft; together; colours
Limestone - Part 1
Limestone is a rock that contains many _______. It consists mainly of the minerals _____ and _____. These minerals are different crystal forms of calcium and finely _____ shells.
Fossils; calcite; aragonite; broken
Limestone - Part 2
Can be used for making ____ as building _____. Chalk is used in ______ to write on blackboards. Also used for _______.
Cement; stone; classrooms; plaster
Shale - Part 2
During the ____ Age, people broke off plates of shale and used them as _____ and ____. It was still used sometimes to make a _____. When you strike one piece of shale on another, it creates ______.
Stone; knives; blades; fire; sparks