# NScience | 1 - 200 Flashcards

The **Fresnel Equation** is used to find a near-field type of this phenomenon

Diffraction

**Babinet’s Principle** states that a certain type of pattern from this phenomenon is identical to the hole it begins at

Diffraction

The **Fraunhofer Equation** is used to find a near-field type of this phenomenon

Diffraction

Name for the bending of light as it goes through a gap

Diffraction

The **Sellmeier Equation** is a relationship between this and the wavelength for a set transparent medium

Index of Refraction

QEO (Quadratic electro-optic) Effect

The **Kerr Effect** is the change of this phenomenon in response to an electric field

Index of Refraction

The arctangent of the ratio of two values of this quantity gives **Brewster’s Angle**

Index of Refraction

This dimensionless optical quantity is proportional to the ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence according to **Snell’s Law**

Index of Refraction

Dimensionless optical quantity represented by “n”

Index of Refraction

The **Fenske Equation** is used to calculate the number of theoretical plates required for this process

Distillation

**Perkin Triangles** are used as a special apparatus for this process

Distillation

**Raschig Rings** are used to form a packing configuration to increase the efficiency of this process

Distillation

Components of this process are classified as **“heavy key” or “light key”** based on volatility

Distillation

**Azeotropes** cannot be separated via this process

Distillation

A **fractional type** of this process separates components of mixtures

Distillation

This process is governed by **Raoult’s Law**

Distillation

On graphs that plot pH versus volume during this process, an **inflection point** indicates the actual **equivalence point**

Titration

A variant of this chemistry technique is named after **Karl Fischer**

Titration

Burettes are commonly used in this chemistry technique

Titration

**Jean Perrin** used this phenomenon to **calculate Avogadro’s Number**

Brownian Motion

This phenomenon seems to allow a violation of the second law of thermodynamics, the **Feynman Ratchet**, to produce workable energy from random motion

Brownian Motion

Concept named for a **Scottish Botanist** based off of the motion of pollen particles

Brownian Motion

Law that states an equilibrium will shift to accommodate any changes, named for a French chemist

Le Chatelier’s Principle

The **Ives-Stilwell** and **Rossi-Hall Experiments** both deal with this concept

Time Dilation

The **Hafele-Keating Experiment** tested this phenomenon by flying several planes around the world

Time Dilation

First observed with its impact on the Doppler Effect

Time Dilation

These entities are described by a modified form of the **Sakuma-Hattori Equation**

Black Bodies

These entities can be assumed to have infinite energy, which leads to **ultraviolet catastrophe**

Black Bodies

These entities absorb all incident radiation

Black Bodies

The Clausius theorem gives that an **integral of a change in this quantity expressed as “negative delta Q over T”**

Entropy

Denoted “**S**”

Entropy

Quantity calculated by multiplying Boltzmann’s constant by the natural logarithm of the number of microstates

Entropy

A law of this quantity implies that **Carnot engines** cannot be perfectly efficient and establishes an **arrow of time**

Entropy

This quantity is zero for only a perfect crystal at zero kelvin

Entropy

The **Van’t Hoff Equation** relates the change in the equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction to the change in temperature given the standard change of this quantity

Enthalpy

This quantity minus the product of temperature and change is entropy

Enthalpy

Internal energy plus pressure times volume (U+P*V)

Enthalpy

Symbolized “H”

Enthalpy

The motion of a body with three distinct values for this quantity is described by the **Tennis Racket Theorem**

Moment of Inertia

This quantity is unchanged when an object is deformed along an axis in the **Stretch Rule**

Moment of Inertia

The **Parallel Axis Theorem** can be used to find this quantity, which is equal to torque over angular acceleration

Moment of Inertia

This quantity is the **rotational analog of mass**, denoted “**I**”

Moment of Inertia

This quantity is an objects resistance to a change in rotation

Moment of Inertia

This quantity is measured by **Wilhelmy Plates**

Surface Tension

This quantity is reduced by the use of **surfactants**

Surface Tension

This quantity allows for insects to walk on water and for water droplets to maintain their shape

Surface Tension

Evans-Polanyi Principle

Activation Energy

Quantity represented as a “hump” in a reaction diagram

Activation Energy

Symbolized E-sub-a

Activation Energy

Minimum amount of energy required for a reaction to occur

Activation Energy

**Lars Onsager** analytically solved a model describing this phenomenon in 2D

Ferromagnetism

**Ernst Ising** created the **Ising Model** for this quantity

Ferromagnetism

Materials with this property exhibit a Hysteresis loop

Ferromagnetism

These molecules are reacted with triphenylphosphine to form ethers

Alcohols

One of these groups reacts with a carboxylic acid in the **Fischer Esterification**

Alcohols

The Claisen rearrangement involves heating one of these compounds to give an unsaturated carbonyl

Ethers

These functional groups are the products of reactions named after Ullmann and Williamson

Ethers

Cyclic examples of these compounds include epoxides as well as their “crown” variant

Ethers

Who discovered Oxygen

Joseph Priestly

Element first isolated from urine by Hennig Brand in 1669

Phosphorous

Material in the tips of matchsticks

Phosphorous

This element is bonded to three phenyl groups in the key reagent used in the Wittig reaction

Phosphorous

This telescope was launched on Christmas Day 2021 by NASA to serve as a replacement for the Hubble Space Telescope

James Webb Telescope

Negative resistance occurs when electrons tunnel through a **P-N junction** in these devices named for Esaki

Diodes

Circuit component that only allows electrical flow in one direction

Diodes

Four of these devices form a “bridge” which helps convert AC to DC in **full-wave rectifiers**

Diodes

This man wrote Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Isaac Newton

This man’s namesake rings occur when light reflects between a spherical and a flat mirror

Isaac Newton

Robert Hooke accused this man of plagiarizing his own work on inverse square laws

Isaac Newton

When a radioactive particle enters this device, it converts a helium ion to a positive ion

Geiger - Muller Counter

One explanation for this process is the Geiger-Nuttall Law, which was later refuted by George Gamow

Alpha Decay

Process that decreases the mass number by four, atomic number by two, and releases a helium nucleus

Alpha Decay

What type of process occurs when a neutron turns into a proton, subsequently releasing an electron during the process

Beta decay

The Fermi-Kurie plot models this process

Beta decay

This technique uses optical and electron devices to magnify small things

Microscopy

This biological process is the “dark reactions” of photosynthesis

Calvin Cycle

This person and Augustus Matthiessen isolated lithium from lithium chloride

Robert Bunsen

Gustav Kirchhoff and this man analyzed emission spectra to discover cesium

Robert Bunsen

These organisms excrete waste via an osculum and contain hardy buds called gemmules

Porifera

These organisms interiors are lined with choanocates

Porifera