NSTM Chapter 541, Ship Fuel and Fuel Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in NSTM Chapter 541, Ship Fuel and Fuel Systems Deck (560):
1

F-76 was previously known as ___

DFM

2

The only aviation jet fuel authorized to be carried by fleet oilers and used aboard navy ships

JP-5

3

Handles ship fuel from the time it is received aboard the ship until it is consumed by propulsion and auxiliary equipment

Fuel system

4

Provides fuel to propulsion equipment such as boilers, diesel engines, and gas turbines, as well as to auxiliary equipment

Service system

5

Ships with more than one propulsion space usually have a ___ fuel system

Separate

6

Usually at least ___ service pump and ___ service tanks serve each propulsion service system

2
2

7

How many service tanks are used at one time?

One

8

Takes suction from any storage tank or contaminated oil settling tank and delivers fuel, usually through filtration equipment, to a service tank

Fuel transfer pump

9

Draws contaminated liquid from the tank bottoms and delivers it to a COST

Stripping pump

10

COST

Contaminated Oil Settling Tank

11

___ ships with ____ have no separate stripping systems

Gas turbine
Seawater-compensated storage tanks

12

Most significant hazards of fuel

Flammability
Toxicity
Pressure

13

Enhance ship's stability and trim by ___

Keeping fuel properly distributed among storage tanks
Minimizing the number of partially fill uncompensated tanks, to reduce free surface
Ballasting storage tanks when necessary

14

Fuel system operations that affect stability include ___

Fueling, transferring, ballasting, and deballasting

15

Onboard provisions for cleaning fuel

Storage tank stripping
Transfer system filtration
Service tank stripping
Service tank recirculation
Service system filtration

16

Service system filtration. Steam ships typically use a ___; diesel engine ships use ___; and gas turbine ships use ____

Strainer
Filter attached to the engine
Filter/separator

17

Remove free water as well as fine particles

Filter/separator

18

Many gas turbine ships have a ___ upstream of the filter/separator

Pre-filter

19

Transferring fuel from one underway ship to another underway ship

Fueling at sea

20

Lowest temperature at which the fuel gives off enough vapor to form a mixture with the air that is capable of being ignited by any ignition source

Flashpoint

21

___ are hazards of fuel below the flashpoint

Wicking and mist formation

22

Lowest temperature at which the fuel will ignite in air without a spark or flame

Autoignition temperature

23

Autoignition temperature is also called ___

Autogenous ignition temperature

24

AIT

Autoignition Temperature

25

AITs as low as ___ have been measured for F-76 and JP-5

450*F (232*C)

26

Surfaces hotter than ___ generally are required to be insulated to protect personnel

125*F (52*C)

27

Every effort shall be made to prevent fuel from dripping or spraying onto any hot surface of ___ or higher

400*F (204*C)

28

When fuel is drawn onto an absorbent solid material that can be ignited locally

Wicking

29

Fuel soaked clothing can be a hazard for ___

Days

30

How shipboard fuel fires start

Fuel leaks
Fuel spray
Fuel accumulation

31

Any unintended release of fuel

Fuel leak

32

Most dangerous kind of fuel leak

Fuel spray

33

How to prevent shipboard fuel fires

Separation
Good maintenance

34

Basic principle of preventing shipboard fuel fires

Keep fuel and ignition sources away from each other

35

When looking for fuel sprays, pay particular attention to ___

Piping and joints near hot surfaces

36

Do not paint nonferrous and corrosion resistant steel piping and valves in ____ areas

Nonbilge

37

Inspections of fuel tanks for leakage should include ___

Manhole covers and external sounding tubes

38

Soft patches on fuel piping shall be reported by ___

Departure From Specifications (DFS) request

39

When assembling fuel system joints, always use ___

New gaskets

40

The presence of fuels in the bilge can be detected by ___

Spreading a thin coat of water indicating paste on one side of a metal rod, and fuel indicating paste on the other side

41

Pump oily waste from bilges using the ___

Oily waste transfer system

42

Do not light off boilers, diesel engines, or gas turbines when oily waste is ___

In the bilges or on nearby deck plates

43

When boilers are secured and will not be lit off within ___, drain fuel from the torch pots

24 hours

44

The lighting-off torch pot shall be ___ in front of each boiler

Welded or bolted to a structural member of the deckplating

45

Fuel on deck place is a ___ hazard

Fire and slipping

46

Detect flammable gases and vapors

Combustible gas indicators

47

Fuel tanks are considered ___

IDLH

48

No person shall enter a tank known or suspected to contain fuel or fuel vapors at any time without first having received permission to enter such a tank from the ___

CO

49

Before granting permission to enter a tank that may contain fuel or fuel vapors, the CO shall ___

Ensure safety precautions and instructions in NSTM Chapter 074, Volume 3 are carried out and that personnel supervising the entry are familiar with these instructions and precautions

50

Make no repairs involving hot work near fuel tanks and piping without a ___

Hot work permit

51

Avoid using ___ lights near fuel tanks or during repairs in engineering spaces that have not been declared gas free

Portable electric

52

When portable electric lights must be used near fuel tanks or during repairs in engineering spaces that have not been declared gas free, fit them with ___

Explosion proof enclosures and heavy wire guards, and test them for complete insulation

53

Required for sounding tubes that terminate in hazardous areas

Sounding tube floating-ball check valves

54

Prevents fuel from spilling from the sounding tube if the tank is overfilled while the sounding tube is open

Sounding tube floating-ball check valves

55

Required for flanged connections in locations identified in NSTM Chapter 505

Flange spray shields

56

Prevent fires caused by poor joint assembly, gasket failure, or improper torquing of fasteners

Flange spray shields

57

Capture any fuel spray from the joint and cause it to drip or dribble to a safe location instead of spraying onto nearby hot surfaces

Flange spray shields

58

Emergency cutout valves are required for ___

Casualty control

59

Provide various ways to quickly shut off the fuel flow in the service system, either locally or outside the space

Emergency cutout valves

60

Required for motor-driven fuel service pumps

Service pump remote shutdown pushbuttons

61

Service pump remote shutdown pushbuttons are located ___

Outside the space for casualty control

62

Required for all service system strainer, filter/separator, and pre-filter covers

Integral cover fuel spray deflectors

63

Direct any fuel that leaks past the cover gasket or o-ring downward, where it is less likely to strike a hot surface

Integral cover fuel spray deflectors

64

All sampling and vent connections inside the ship shall discharge ___

Downward into a funnel

65

Sampling and vent connection funnels shall direct the fuel to ___

Oily water drain collecting system

66

__ shall be provided over any hot surfaces under the sampling and vent connection funnels

Spray shields

67

Provided at all sampling connections

Sampling connection cutout valves

68

Boiler front connections have been provided with ___

Two cutout valves in series

69

Fuel sampling connections shall not have ___

End caps

70

Why should fuel sampling connections not have end caps?

Pressure can build under the end cap if the sample valve leaks, causing a momentary fuel spray when the cap is removed

71

___ shall replace old-style rubber lined butterfly valves in fuel systems whenever possible

High-performance butterfly valves

72

Provided in air escapes of fuel tanks to retard flashback if the system is accidentally exposed to an ignition source

Vent/flash screens

73

____ has replaced the Firesafe F/O Strainer (FSFOS) for purposes of simplicity

Hellan Simplex Strainer

74

___ Strainer is equipped with a hand wheel that allows the operator to turn the integral basket element against a stationary scraper blade in order to remove accumulated sediment on the exterior of the strainer basket element. The sediment is then flushed to a drain line

Hellan Simplex

75

Hold fuel as it is loaded onto the ship, before it is cleaned for use by propulsion and auxiliary equipment

Fuel storage tanks

76

The three kinds of fuel storage tanks differ in the way ___

Seawater ballasting is related to fuel storage and ship stability

77

Three kinds of fuel storage tanks

Separate fuel tanks and ballast tanks
Fuel or ballast tanks
Seawater-compensated fuel tanks

78

Incorrect handling of the fuel also affects operating fuel economy if storage distribution causes ___

Drag in excess of intended trim

79

__ is responsible for the ship's loading and ballasting

Damage Control Officer

80

Fuel storage and ballasting methods apply only to fuel ___, never introduce seawater into fuel ___

Storage tanks
Service tanks

81

Rated capacity of a fuel storage tank that is not sea-water compensated is ___

95% of its total capacity

82

The remaining 5% in a fuel storage tank rated capacity is reserved to ___

Allow the fuel to expand

83

Do not fill uncompensated fuel tanks, not designated as an overflow tank, to more than ___ of capacity in port or at sea

95%

84

Do not fill uncompensated overflow tanks above ___ of capacity at sea, or ___ in port

95%
80%

85

In this system fuel storage tanks and seawater ballast tanks are completely separate

Separate fuel tanks and ballast tanks

86

Ballast seawater form separate ballast tanks that never contain fuel can be discharged within ___ because the ballast seawater ___

Prohibited zones
Contains no fuel

87

Primarily separate fuel and ballast system, but if the fuel load falls below a certain point and additional ballast is required, designated fuel tanks may be ballasted with seawater

Modified clean ballast system

88

This system has no separate seawater ballast tanks

Fuel or ballast tanks

89

In a fuel or ballast tank system, the ballast seawater is introduced by the ___ through separate tailpipes and is removed by the ___

Firemain
Main drain eductors and the stripping pumps

90

Never ballast a fuel tank until ___

It is completely empty of fuel

91

Ballast seawater in a fuel tank is considered ___

Oily waste

92

To avoid drawing silt or other contaminants into the tank, do not utilize ___ as ballast seawater in any fuel tank

Harbor water

93

Ballasted fuel tanks whose tops are above the transfer system manifold have a ____ between the tank bulkhead isolation valve and the manifold

Pipeline sample connection

94

If seawater is detected in the fuel transfer system, take samples from the sample connections at all ballasted tanks. If any sample contains seawater, then ____

The isolation valve at that tank is probably leaking

95

____ fuel storage tanks are always completely full of liquid

Seawater-compensated

96

Ballast seawater enters tanks as fuel is removed, and is displaced overboard as fuel is added

Seawater compensated fuel storage tanks

97

The fuel and the seawater tend to remain separate because of ___

Differing specific gravities

98

The types of fuels used onboard naval vessels are ___ than seawater

Lighter

99

Storage tanks are connected in ___

Banks

100

In an tank bank, the transfer system is connected to the top of the ___

First tank

101

The first tank in the bank is called the ___

Receiving tank

102

The ___ of each tank in the bank is connected to the ___ of the next tank through a ____

Bottom
Top
Sluice pipe

103

The bottom of the last tank in the bank is connected to the top of the ____

Expansion tank

104

The overflow piping runs from the bottom of the ____ up to ___

Expansion tank
Overboard discharge connection and an overflow

105

The ____ in the overflow piping keeps the liquid in the storage tanks under pressure

Seawater standing

106

On ships with stripping tanks, personnel shall check ____ prior to filling

Stripping tank sight glass

107

The transfer system draws fuel from ___

The top of the receiving tank

108

___ is discharged when fuel is added to a tank bank

Seawater

109

Butterfly valves with holes drilled through the disc. In the closed position these valves limit the flow of fuel into each tank to approximately 400 gal/min

Inport refueling valves

110

Do not use ___ to blow seawater from compensated tanks

Air pressure

111

In a tank bank, pump out the ___ first, because it is always ____

Expansion tank
Higher than the other tanks

112

Fill the last fuel tank in a compensated tank bank to only ___ when in port and ___ when at sea

80%
95%

113

Tanks that overflow directly overboard shall have __

High level alarms

114

Avoid refueling or transferring fuel at ___

Night

115

Purifier pumps have a ___ flow capacity than transfer pumps

Lower

116

Use the ___ pump for transfer between storage tanks and for defueling

Transfer

117

Use the ____ pump for transfer from a storage tank to a service tank

Purifier

118

Smaller ships have a deck connection designed for a __ hose, capable of passing ____

2-1/2 inch
200 to 250 gpm

119

To minimize system resistance and thus maximize filling rate, align the transfer system to ___

Fill as many tanks at once as possible

120

As each tank approaches full ___

Throttle the flow into the tank

121

___ each tank before fueling

Check the level

122

Check tanks by ____ rather than with ___

Sounding
TLIs

123

When the tank is first being filled, take soundings every ___

3 or 4 minutes

124

After the tank reaches ____, take soundings continuously until full

3/4 full

125

____ after each sounding to minimize the fuel vapors entering the space and to prevent a fuel spill if the tank overflows

Replace the sounding tube cap

126

Reasons to consolidate fuel

Move weight for list and trim
Reduce free surface
Speed up fueling

127

On ships with seawater-compensated tanks, remove the fuel ___

Evenly

128

Do what to the tanks before transferring fuel

Sample and strip

129

Some transfers between uncompensated tanks can be accomplished by gravity if ___

The liquid level of the supply tank is higher than the liquid level of the receiving tank

130

If the ship has multiple transfer pumps, use the pump ___

Closest to the supply tank to minimize suction requirements

131

Before starting the transfer pump, perform ___

System operational integrity test

132

Steam ships have strainers in their ___

Service tank fill lines

133

Ships with purifiers have ____ upstream of the purifiers to reduce the viscosity of F-76 for optimum purifier operation and to prevent fuel from ___

Fuel heaters
Waxing

134

Because of JP-5's overall characteristically lower viscosity and freeze point (cloud point for F-76) at any given temperature compared to F-76, it is not necessary to ___ JP-5

Heat

135

If heating is not required, route the fuel through a ____

Heater bypass valve

136

Heater installations include ___

High-temperature alarms and relief valves

137

Fill service tanks as soon as ___

Suction has been switched to the standby service tank

138

Do not fill a service tank that is ___

Being used to supply fuel to the service system

139

Conduct all transfer operations according to the ship's ___

EOSS procedures

140

This test provides a quick check on system alignment, to verify that fuel is not being delivered to an unintended destination

System preoperational integrity test

141

Run this test during the startup of transfer operations for ships with strainers or filters

System preoperational integrity test

142

Do not accomplish the system preoperation integrity test with alignments that pass fuel through ____, because ____

Purifiers
The high back pressure will impede the proper fuel flow through the purifier

143

Primary purpose of the system preoperational integrity test

Detect misalignments

144

The system is correctly aligned if the pressure ___

Approaches its rated maximum

145

If the pump discharge pressure never approaches its rated maximum, even with the receiving tank inlet valve closed, then three possibilities are ___

Unintended open valve
Pump relief valve that has failed in the open position
Major system leak

146

If system flow cannot be established within ___ after the pump is started, stop the pump

1 minute

147

If the strainer was cleaned since the last time is was pressurized, the strainer shall be ___ before the system preoperational integrity test is completed

Pressure tested for leaks

148

Stop the pump when the service tank is ___ full

95%

149

Log the differential pressure readings across the filter/separator in the ___

Fuel transfer log

150

The transfer system is aligned to recirculate fuel back to the suction side of the transfer/purifier pump via a three-way inlet valve to allow the purifier and heater to ___

Reach steady-state operation

151

If the purifier fails to start, allow it to ___ before trying to restart it

Coast to a complete stop

152

To avoid overheating, ___ before power is applied or steam is admitted to the heater

Fuel must be flowing through the heater

153

The bowl of the self-cleaning purifier is periodically cleaned by a ___

Shoot cycle

154

In a shoot cycle, the diverter valve upstream of the purifer redirects fuel flow ____ instead of into the purifier, and the purifier ____

Back to the pump suction
Discharges solid contaminants from the bowl

155

All fuel vents and drains are directed to the ___

Oily water drain collecting system

156

Vents often terminate at ___

Drip pans

157

Provides fuel from the service tanks to the ship's propulsion and other equipment

Fuel service system

158

EOSS

Engineering Operational Sequencing System

159

Fueling operations shall always be conducted according to the ___

Ship's EOSS procedures

160

Piping arrangements for returning unneeded fuel to the service tanks depends on whether ___

Pumps are motor driven or turbine driven

161

If the service pumps are driven by motors, a ___ controls the amount of fuel returned to the service tank on suction

Pressure regulating valve

162

The pressure regulating valve in a motor driven service pump is called ___

Unloading valve

163

Maintains a constant pressure downstream of the pump

Unloading valve

164

Fuel must be returned to the service tank because motor-driven service pumps move a ___

Constant flow

165

If the service pumps are turbine-driven, the ___ adjusts pump speed to maintain a constant fuel discharge pressure

Turbine constant-pressure governor

166

Use the online tank until it is ___ full, then put the standby tank online

50%

167

Before putting a service tank online

Test the fuel

168

When the service tank in use is changed, fill the new standby tank ___

As soon as possible

169

Stops fuel flow into the system from the service tank

Service tank suction cutout valves

170

Surest way to stop a leak anywhere in the system

Close or trip the service tank suction emergency cut out valve

171

Steam ship service pumps are driven by either __

Steam turbines or electric motors

172

How many pumps are provided in each space on a steam ship?

2

173

Service pump turbine governors adjust steam flow to maintain a ___

Constant fuel pressure downstream of the pump

174

If the main service pumps are turbine driven, an ___ is usually included

Electric inport service pump of lower flow capacity

175

___ is intended to supply fuel to a boiler while inport or for lighting off the first boiler in a space

Inport pump

176

___ are used to clean the fuel in steam ship service systems

Simplex or duplex filters

177

___ configuration allows for switching flow from a dirty basket to a clean basket, without interrupting the flow of fuel to the boiler

Duplex

178

Utilize a simplistic design using a hand wheel to rotate the basket element against a stationary scraper blade to remove accumulated sediment contaminants

Simplex strainer

179

Discharge pressures from motor driven service pumps are controlled by the ___

Unloading valve

180

Discharge pressures from turbine driven service pumps are controlled by the ____

Turbine constant pressure governor

181

The turbine constant pressure governor senses ___

Pressure in the fuel line downstream of the pump

182

Service pump discharge pressures are typically ___

350 lb/1in² to 430 lb/in²

183

Pressure in the boiler manifold is controlled by the ___

Boiler fuel control valve

184

Pressure in the boiler fuel manifold is always ___ to the service pump discharge pressure

Less than or equal

185

Many diesel engine return lines include coolers that cool the fuel to approximately ___

110*F (43*C)

186

Excessively warm fuel will ___

Not cool the injectors effectively and could begin vaporizing in the engine fuel system before reaching the injectors

187

Engines with no coolers in the return lines have ___

Sufficiently long lines and large service tanks to prevent fuel from becoming too warm

188

If an engine has to be serviced while other engines in the space are operating, ___

Isolate the fuel lines to and from the engine being maintained

189

Service tanks are located so that fuel pump inlets are ___

Flooded when the tanks are full

190

If the diesel engine is for an emergency generator, the engine systems should be aligned for ___

Automatic starting

191

In gas turbine ship service systems, the pumps act as ____

Booster pumps

192

Gas turbines have their own attached fuel pumps that ___

Increase the fuel pressure to that needed for the combustors

193

Service pump discharge pressures in a gas turbine are typically ___

55 psig

194

Overall coordination and control for gas turbines emanates from the ___

Central control station

195

Start the service pump at ___

Slow speed

196

The ___ fills the service tanks

Transfer system

197

The service tanks are considered part of the ___ system

Service

198

In an emergency, service pumps on steam and gas turbine ships can take suction directly from the ___, usually through the ___

Storage tanks
Transfer system main

199

The connection to the transfer system for drawing fuel directly from storage tanks is usually ___

Locked closed

200

Removes water and sediment from the bottoms of fuel tanks

Fuel stripping system

201

Contaminated fuel in tanks or service system piping is usually stripped to the ____

Contaminated oil settling tank

202

Lowest tailpipes in a tank

Stripping tailpipes

203

Stripping tailpipes are ___ from the lowest point in the tank

3/4"

204

In configurations where two-speed dual purpose, transfer/stripping pumps are used, a ____ is installed on the tank bottom directly beneath the tailpipe terminus

Doubler plate

205

Two reasons to pump contaminated fuel to the COST

Avoiding pollution
Reclaiming fuel

206

Leave contaminated fuel in the COST for ___

As long as possible

207

Keep bilge fluid or any other fluid that may contain ____ other than the ship's fuel from entering the COST

Hydrocarbons

208

___ storage tanks do not a low-point stripping tailpipes

Seawater-compensated

209

The pressure boundary of an operating fuel system shall not be broken except for ___

Extraordinary situations

210

The ___ permission is usually required for single-valve isolation of a pressurized fuel system

COs

211

If the pressure boundary of the system has been opened and then closed, a ___ is often required on the affected portion of the system

Hydrostatic test

212

Verifies that the system is not leaking and is capable of holding and maintaining pressure

Hydrostatic test

213

When conducting a hydrostatic test on a fuel system, be prepared to ___

Fight a bravo fire

214

Tightness test option for a reduced energy system is for systems operating at ___

200 psig or less and 200*F or less

215

If possible, perform the operational pressure test when the space is at ___

Cold iron

216

___ piping systems may require more flushing than stainless or copper-nickel systems

Carbon steel

217

___ will be used as the flushing fluid

F-76 or JP-5

218

If system pumps are to be used to circulate the flushing fluid, install __ to protect the pumps

Temporary suction strainers

219

During flushing, periodically ___ the system piping, especially near welded joints, by ___

Vibrate
Striking it with a wooden mallet or equivalent means

220

Flush the system for a minimum of ___ or until ___

24 hours
The muslin or nylon bags in the strainers show no appreciable contamination for two consecutive hours

221

When flushing is completed, transfer the flushing fluid to ___ or ___

COST
Empty storage tank

222

The flushing fluid shall discharge into the tank through a strainer having ___ openings

4-mil

223

Flushing is generally not required for ____

Stripping systems

224

Fuel systems take suction from tanks and discharge into tanks through ___

Tailpipes

225

Fuel tanks are coated to ___

Prevent corrosion

226

Provides an escape path for fuel so the tank does not rupture if it is overfilled

Overflow pipe

227

Thanks that overflow directly overboard have ____

High-level alarms

228

Overflow tanks have overflow pipes that ___

Discharge overboard

229

When overflow pipes from individual tanks are combined, a ___ is installed in the line from each tank

Check valve

230

Overflow pipes that discharge overboard have check valves to prevent ___

Water from entering the tanks through the overflow line

231

This tank overflow configuration contains no valves, is calculated to a specific pipe size, and routed to a height such that the static pressure head will force fuel into all fuel tanks of a particular group before overflowing

Standpipe

232

Run from the topmost points of fuel tanks to the weather decks

Vent pipes

233

Allow air to exit and enter as non-compensated tanks are filled and emptied, and as fuel expands and contracts with temperature changes

Vent pipes

234

The vent/flash screen in vent pipes have an inner ___ and an outer wire screen of either ___ or ___ mesh

40-mesh wire screen
1/4"
1/2"

235

___ vent/air escape screens after painting has been done near the vent/air escape terminal

Inspect

236

Compensated tanks have valve vent connections on top of each tank, for the purpose of ___

Releasing trapped air while tanks are filling with water following tank cleaning

237

Used for determining fuel or water level and for taking fuel samples

Sounding tubes

238

Sounding tubes are not installed in ___ tanks because the tanks are ____

Compensated
Under pressure

239

___ inch holes are drilled through fuel tank sounding tubes approximately every ___ along the length, to ensure ___

1/2"
6"
Samples taken from the sounding tube are representative of the fuel in the tank

240

Sounding tubes are closed by ___

A cap that screws onto the top of the tube

241

___ are installed at the terminals of sounding tubes that terminate below the full-load water line and serve tanks having at least one boundary exposed to the sea

Gate valves

242

Floating ball check valves are required in F-76, JP-5, and oily waste sounding tubes that terminate in the following locations ___

-Main and aux machinery spaces
-Spaces containing diesel-driven or turbine driven generators or pumps, oil-fired boilers, or incinerators
-Spaces dedicated to electrical or electronic equipment
-Spaces with carpeted decks

243

Tanks do not require sounding tube floating ball check valves if the tank is filled only through a ___ and the highest point of the tank overflow is ___

Funnel drain
Below the top of the sounding tube

244

Floating ball check valves are not required in living spaces or passageways without ___

Carpeted decks

245

Determining the level of liquid in a tank by using a sounding tube

Sounding the tank

246

The level of liquid on a sounding tape can be more easily determined by ___

Applying a thin coast of fuel-indicating paste

247

If no fuel indicating paste is available, a thin coat of ___ can be used as well

Lubricating oil

248

Another way to determine fuel level is to drill holes ___ about every ___ along the length of the sounding tape

1/8" or smaller
Inch

249

After determining the fuel level by sounding the tank, the volume of fuel can be calculated from the ____

Ship's tank sounding tables

250

Show the volume or weight of fuel in tanks

TLI systems

251

Three basic types of remote reading, level indicating systems are used in fuel tanks

Static head type and two electric types
Magnetic float sensing techniques
Sounding tube pulse radar

252

Magnetic float level-indicating systems in tanks that overflow directly overboard have ___

Integral high-level alarms

253

The high-level alarms sound when the tank has reached between ___ of its total capacity

95 - 98%

254

The alarm point is intended to provide about a ___ minute warning that the tank will overflow unless tank filling is stopped immediately

2

255

___ warns operators that suction will soon be lost but gives them adequate time to switch to the other service tank

Low-level alarms

256

Service tanks are normally drawn down only to ___ of capacity

50%

257

In compensated tanks the magnetic float is designed to float in ___ but sink in ___, so it floats at the ___

Seawater
Fuel
Fuel/water interface

258

In a compensated tank the operation of the transmitter is ___

Reversed

259

Tank level indicators in compensated fuel tanks and fuel tanks that can be ballasted are coated with ___

Epoxy

260

The epoxy coating prevents the indicator from ___

Fouling

261

Keep cutout valves on direct reading sight glasses ___ except when ___ to prevent ____

Closed
Taking readings
Fuel leakage if the sight glass is broken

262

Vertical glass tube outside of a fuel tank that is piped into the tank at the top and bottom

Direct reading sight glass

263

___ is required at each tank cautioning personnel to keep the sight glass cutout valves ____

Instruction plate
Closed except when taking readings

264

The magnet in the float raises small flags outside of the pipe to indicate the fuel level

Indirect reading sight glass

265

Determines where the fuel/water interface is in the COST

Cleavage indicating system

266

Hand pump takes suction from different heights in the tank to a sight glass to visually determine whether it is fuel or water in the COST

Cleavage indicating system

267

Always use a ___ when reinstalling a tank access cover

New gasket

268

Gaskets for fuel tank access covers shall be ___ thick and shall be of the material specified in SAE-AMS-C-6183, Class 1, Grade C

3/16" thick

269

Make sure all gasket sealing surfaces are ___

Clean and undamaged

270

If there is doubt about the condition of the sealing surface, use ____ to verify that the gasket is making contact over its entire surface

Bluing compound

271

After the tank cover is installed, the compressed gasket should be between ____ thick

0.13 and 0.15 inch

272

If the gap is accessible check the gasket compression by ___

Inserting a feeler gauge between the tank cover and the tank

273

When practical, ___ the tank after a new cover has been installed

Air-test

274

When refilling a tank after a new cover has been installed, ___

Watch the tank access cover for leaks and maintain direct communication with someone who can stop the refilling process

275

Most shipboard fuel system pipe is ___

Carbon steel

276

___ fuel piping in bilges historically has corroded severely

Carbon steel

277

Pipe wall thickness is evaluated using ___

Ultrasonic testing (UT)

278

Temporary pipe repairs require an ___

Approved Departure from Specifications (DFS)

279

Flange shields and flange shield materials received from the stock system have a ___ on one side, which faces ___

Rubberized coating
Outward

280

When replacement sections of pipe are made in a shore-based facility, they shall be ___ before being installed

Blasted and painted in the shop

281

Copper-nickel or stainless steel piping may be installed in existing fuel systems if the following conditions are met ____

- The new material will only run between the tanks or existing flanges that are high enough to avoid bilge water, no material transitions in the bilge.
- All components in the new line will be replaced with galvanically compatible components, to prevent galvanic corrosion of steel components

282

___ piping is not used in bilge areas of steam ships nor in tanks that may contain seawater

Stainless steel

283

____ piping is used in some ships to replace piping in the bilge areas of the ship, since it is more resistant to seawater corrosion

Copper-nickel

284

Installing short pieces of copper-nickel or stainless steel in a carbon steel piping system in the bilge can lead to ___

Severe galvanic corrosion

285

Consider replacing a large run of pipe if ___

Wall thickness below minimum for welding
Multiple failures
Several relatively thin spots
Excessive corrosion
Close to ignition sources

286

___ can cause problems by allowing fuel to enter or leave tanks that are supposed to be isolated

Valve leak-by

287

Wafer style 90 degree movement valve which serves as an authorized replacement valve for bother rubber lined butterfly and high performance butterfly valves

Triple offset torque seated valves (TOTS)

288

Most unintended trips of quick-closing valves are caused by ___

The cables being too tight

289

The best solution to avoid unintended trips is to replace cable actuating systems with ___

Linear actuators

290

Most fuel system pumps are ___ pumps. The most common kinds are ___

Rotary positive displacement
Screw pumps and sliding vane pumps

291

Do not allow a PD pump to run against a dead-headed system for more than ___

1 minute

292

___ are usually the only kind of fuel filtration used on steam ships

Strainers

293

If a strainer is installed on the suction side of the pump, the holes should be ___ or larger

1/32"

294

Transfer system strainer baskets usually have ___ openings

4-mil (0.004-inch)

295

Steam ship service systems require ____ baskets to provide filtration fine enough to allow boiler fuel controls and atomizers to operate properly

24-mesh (0.03 inch openings)

296

___ strainers are used for propulsion boilers; ___ strainers are used for auxiliary equipment that is operated intermittently

Duplex
Simplex

297

The inline and cone-type strainers are only authorized for ____

System cleanup at shipyards

298

Fuel system strainer baskets are usually made of ___

Monel or stainless steel

299

Most fuel system strainers flow is __

Inside to outside

300

The ___ off-line basket can be cleaned without opening the housing

Firesafe Fuel Oil Strainer (FSFOS)

301

FSFOS

Firesafe Fuel Oil Strainer

302

All strainers should have a ___ or ___ pressure gauge

Duplex
Differential

303

The maximum allowable pressure drop for transfer system strainers can be found by ___

Adding 20% of the rated discharge pressure of the transfer pump to the pressure of the strainer when clean

304

When the pressure drop through a FSFOS exceeds ___, switch baskets and backflush

10 lb/in^2

305

If backflushing does not reduce the pressure drop to ___, or below, open and inspect the compartment the next time the strainer is secured

6 lb/in^2

306

To clean a strainer basket ___

Soak it in a solvent such as P-D-680 Type III and lightly scrub with a nonmetallic brush

307

Before performing maintenance on an FSFOS ___

Isolate, drain, and vent

308

The simplex fuel oil service strainer operates on the ___

Peripheral inflow method particle retention

309

The simplex fuel oil service strainer flow is ___

Outside to inside

310

The drain valve assemble in the simplex fuel oil service strainer has an elbow at the inlet and a special ball having a hole diameter, which ranges from ___ to ____

1.00 ID
.062 ID

311

After start up procedures have been completed and the fuel oil system is operating, monitor the differential pressure gauges, the pressure drop should be less than ___

10 psi

312

Flushing the strainer requires rotating the external hand wheel ___ and opening the strainer drain valve ___

2 complete revolutions
1/4 turn

313

If simplex filter separators are installed in a gas turbine ship, then ___

Two units are installed in parallel

314

Designed to remove solids and water from fuel

Filter/separators

315

Filter/separators can be either ___

Class 1 or class 2

316

Class 1 filter/separator units have ___

Automatic water drains, manual controls are also provided

317

Class 2 filter/separator units have ___

Only manual controls for water drain

318

Maintain a filter/separator log for ___

Unit hours of operation, element replacement dates, and differential pressure

319

Coalescer elements shall be kept ___ to prevent drying out and loss of effectiveness

Submerged

320

Replace coalescer elements when the filter/separator has been drained and remains empty for ___

7 days or longer

321

At the installation site, ___ shall visually inspect each coalescer element for physical damage and defects before reinstalling it in the filter separator housings

Senior petty officer or above

322

If the coalescer element does not pass inspection ____

Return all failed elements to the supply point in their original packaging, and submit a product quality deficiency report (PQDR)

323

All coalescer elements in the filter/separator should be from ___

The same manufacturer

324

When ordering filter/separator elements use ____, not ___

NSN on the Allowance Parts List (APL)
Manufacturer's part number

325

The 20-inch coalescer elements used in F-76 fuel system filter/separators and the 20-inch coalescer elements used in some JP-5 systems filter/separator are ___

Not identical

326

Use a ___ when installing the pre-filter compartment cover

New cover O-ring gasket

327

All gas turbine ships and most diesel ships use a ___ to remove water and solid contaminants from fuel in the transfer system

Centrifugal purifier

328

The purifier is essentially a ___

Motor-driven centrifuge

329

Separates contaminated fuel into its three major components due to the difference in their relative densities

Purifier

330

The bowl assembly and disk stack rotational axis in the purifier is ___

Vertical

331

In a purifier the ___ separate the contaminated fuel into thin layers, reducing the distance solids must travel for separation

Disks

332

The purifier is capable of removing water from a contaminated mixture which is up to ___ water

50%

333

The purifier is capable of processing 100% of water for a period of ___, without any water discharge from the fuel discharge port

5 minutes

334

___ is admitted to the purifier bowl to establish a priming seal

Water

335

Fuel enters the purifier in the ___ of the assembly

Bottom

336

Centrifugal separation of fuel and water requires a controlled, properly positioned, ____

Fuel/water interface

337

The fuel/water interface in the purifier is located ___

Beyond the outer edge of the disk stack and extends from the bottom of the bowl to the outer edge of the top disk

338

Installed to control the location of the fuel/water interface

Gravity ring

339

If the gravity ring is too large, the interface moves towards the ___

Outer portion of the bowl

340

If the gravity ring puts the interface to far to the outer edge of the purifier bowl, it results in ___

Better solids removal, but less efficient water removal, increases the likelihood of loss of the water seal

341

Loss of the water seal in the purifier

Breakover

342

The centrifugal purifier can only remove contaminants that are heavier than ___

Both fuel and water

343

Be sure the ___ is sufficiently slack or emptied before starting the purifier. If it is overfilled it may flow back into the ___

Purifier drain tank
Purifier gear housing

344

If the purifier does not come up to operating speed within ___ after starting, shut it down and determine the cause

12 minutes

345

Do not attempt to restart the purifier within ___ after rotation wind-down

1/2 hour

346

The source of Naval Distillate Fuel and other petroleum-derived products is ___

Crude oil

347

By distilling crude oil, the various components that make up the crude can be separated according to their ____

Boiling points

348

The main fractions separated during crude distillation, in order of increasing boiling points are ____

Fuel gas (essentially methane and ethane)
LPG gas (propane and butane)
Naphtha (gasoline blends)
Gas oils (jet and diesel fuel stock)
Residuum

349

Distillate fuels can be divided into three categories

Turbine jet fuels
Middle distillate (diesel) fuels
Heating oils

350

Turbine jet fuels can be divided further into two types

Gasoline-type fuels
Kerosene-type fuels

351

Gasoline-type jet fuels are characterized by ___

Low pour points and high flammability

352

Kerosene-type fuels have ___ freezing points and are ___ flammable than gasoline-type fuels

Higher
Less

353

The only kerosene-type jet fuel permitted onboard naval ships is ___

JP-5

354

___ fuels are blended from higher boiling stocks than jet fuels, it is the primary fuel used in all naval shipboard power plants

Middle Distillate (Diesel) Fuels

355

Pour point of F-76

21*F (-6*C) maximum

356

F-75 is an acceptable substitute fuel for ___ in all naval shipboard power plants

F-76

357

F-75 has a pour point of ___

0*F (-18*C)

358

Naval Distillate Lower Pour Point

F-75

359

Knowing the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity or specific gravity, of the fuel is essential for ___

Load distribution purposes and for a number of calculations

360

The specific gravity of a fuel is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of the fuel to the weight of an equal volume of water at ____

60*F (15.6*C)

361

Both API gravity and specific gravity are determined using an instrument called a ___

Hydrometer

362

API

American Petroleum Institute

363

The quantity of energy released by burning a unit amount of fuel

Calorific or heating value

364

Units commonly used for calorific or heating value

Btu per pound or gallon of fuel

365

In the US, calorific values are quantified as the ___

Higher Heating Value (HHV)

366

By laboratory testing, the heating value of fuel can be accurately determined using a sophisticated test apparatus called a ___

Bomb calorimeter

367

A known quantity of fuel and oxygen is ignited in a steel vessel under pressure, and the heating value is computed using the temperature rise measured during the reaction

Bomb calorimeter

368

HHV

Higher Heating Value

369

HHV (Btu/lb) = ___

17601 + (*API @ 60*F)

370

In Europe heating values are often quantified as the ___

Lower Heating Value (LHV)

371

LHVs are approximately ___ lower than HHVs for the same fuel

1100 Btu/lb

372

Fuel is usually purchased by ___

Volume

373

Most engineering calculations of heating value are based on ___

Weight

374

Fluid's resistance to flow

Viscosity

375

Viscosity is expressed in ___ terms

Kinematic or absolute

376

The most commonly used units of viscosity are the ___ for kinematic and ___ for absolute

Centistoke (cSt)
Centipoise (cp)

377

The preferred unit of viscosity for fuel testing is the ___

Centistoke

378

Kinematic viscosity (cSt) = ____

Absolute viscosity (cp) / Specific gravity

379

The most accurate means for determining viscosity is the ___ technique

Kinematic

380

Viscosity is determined by measuring the time in seconds required for a given quantity of liquid to flow through a calibrated capillary tube at the test temperature

Kinematic technique

381

When plotted on ASTM viscosity/temperature paper, the viscosity of normal fluid will typically follow a ____

Straight line

382

As petroleum fuels are cooled, the larger paraffin molecules present in the fuel begin to ___

Bond together to form wax

383

That temperature at which this aggregation of molecules becomes apparent as a visible clouding or haze in the sample

Cloud point

384

The temperature at which the fuel will no longer flow

Pour point

385

Both the cloud point and the pour point indicate the amount of ___ present in the fuel

Long-chain paraffin

386

The cloud point for middle distillate fuels is usually about ___ higher than the pour point

10*F (5*C)

387

If the fuel temperature is below the cloud point temperature, ___ may occur

Filter separator element clogging

388

The lowest temperature at which sufficient vapor is present above the surface of the test liquid to be ignited by a test flame under controlled conditions

Flashpoint

389

__ can be used to indicate the flammability of a fuel for storage and for safety purposes

Flashpoint

390

Measure of the ignition quality of middle distillate fuels

Cetane number

391

__ is analogous to octane number in gasoline

Cetane number

392

In the laboratory environment the ___ is determined by comparing the ignition quality of the test fuel in a standard test engine to that of cetane

Cetane number

393

Cetane number and index is not a requirement for ___

Gas turbines or boilers

394

More easily measured and calculated cetane value

Cetane index

395

Cetane index is based on ___

API gravity and midpoint boiling range

396

During the combustion process, sulfur-containing compounds in the fuel may be ___

Converted to sulfur dioxide and in the presence of water, corrosive sulfuric acids form

397

Sulfur causes ___ in diesel engines and can cause ___ in gas turbines

Top ring wear
Hot corrosion of blades/vanes

398

Sulfur content affects the ___ of the fuel

Calorific value

399

The calorific value of the fuel ___ as the amount of sulfur in the fuel increases

Decreases

400

The measure of the amount of noncombustible (or inorganic) material present in the fuel

Ash content

401

Before combustion, ash can lead to ___ of atomizers, as well as ___ in diesel engine injector pumps

Erosion and plugging
Wear and seizure

402

As middle distillate fuels age, they may ___ through the formation of ____

Darken
Oxygen-catalyzed sludge

403

Dark middle distillate products may indicate products with reduced ___

Storage stability

404

Good quality fuel will appear to be ___

Clear and bright

405

Absence of visible particulate matter in the sample

Clear

406

Absence of visible suspended water in the sample

Bright

407

As the amount of suspended water in the fuel increases, the sample becomes ___

Hazy or cloudy

408

The amount of residue present after fuel has been subjected to thermal decomposition

Carbon residue

409

Carbon residue is significant with respect to ___

Coking tendencies

410

The ability of a fuel to separate adequately from water

Demulsification

411

Demulsification is a property that affects ___

Fuel handling equipment, specifically filter/separators

412

Demulsification is not measured for ___

Commercial fuels

413

The amount of particulates existing at the time of testing

Particulate contamination

414

Particulate contamination can result in ___

Filter separator element clogging

415

The resistance that a fuel has to the formation of degradation products when stored in ambient temperatures

Storage stability

416

Fuel degradation can result in ___

Rapid filter separator element clogging

417

F-76 fuel is tested for storage stability and must pass a predictive test to prove that it will remain stable for a time period of greater than ___

24 months

418

Trace metals such as ___ are measured as part of the F-76 specification requirement

Sodium, potassium, vanadium, lead, and calcium

419

High levels or combinations of trace metals can cause ____

Deposits and severe hot spot corrosion and sulfidation of blades and vanes in gas turbines

420

A fuel that may be used in place of another product for extended periods of time without technical advice

Acceptable substitute fuels

421

Commercial MGO-PD must be used within __ of lifting the fuel

6 weeks

422

Products containing residual fuel are unacceptable for use in ___

Shipboard power plants

423

The method used to purchase MGO-PD at commercial ports under the DESC contracted bunker fuel program

SEA Card Program

424

SEA Card

Ships' Bunkers' Easy Acquisition Card

425

Fuel purchases not using SEA Card must be procured as ___

An open market purchase

426

All fuel accepted onboard must meet the requirement of ___ minimum flash point

140*F

427

A fuel that may be used in an emergency only, in place of another product, after local exploration of the adequacy of the product, using locally available technical manuals and personnel

Emergency substitute fuels

428

An emergency substitute fuel shall not be taken onboard ship until a representative sample has been tested for ___

BS&W, density, and flashpoint

429

The mixing of emergency substitute fuels with acceptable bunkerings is ___

Not recommended

430

Emergency substitute fuels shall have a sulfur content of less or equal to ___

1.0% wt%

431

Any emergency substitute fuel taken onboard must be used ___

Immediately

432

If the supplier replies that the product meets all MGO-PD requirements, ___

No further analysis is required

433

The next quality reference after MGO-PD requirements

ISO 8217-2005, Grade DMA

434

The higher the specific gravity, the ___ it is for the purifier to separate fuel and water

Harder

435

The extent of the impacts due to poor fuel quality will depend on ___

How much fuel is burned, over what timeframe, and the exact quality of the fuel being burned

436

DMX flashpoint

43*C (109*F)

437

___ will contain some amount of residual fuel

DMB or DMC

438

DMB has residual fuel from ___

Transportation

439

DMC has residual fuel from ___

Purposely blending in up to 10-15% residual fuel oil

440

Fuel is delivered to customers under ___

Direct government supervision

441

The DLA contract for direct delivery of fuels from a contractor's facility requires a ___

Quality control program

442

DLA contract for direct delivery QA program is less extensive than that at government operated facilities, in that the fuel is verified for specification compliance before issue, but the ___ is not witnessed

Individual bunker delivery

443

A commercial supplier not under government contract is not required to maintain or establish a ___

Specific QA program

444

Whenever direct procurement of fuel for a commercial supplier not under government contract is required, ___ is responsible for the quantity and quality of the fuel accepted

The ship

445

Fuel source precedence

-Navy-owned stocks
-DLA, DFSP
-NATO storage
-Government contract and contract bulletin using -SEA Card
-Commercial suppliers not under government contract (local purchase)

446

Quantities received shall be determined on the basis of ___ or, when refueling at sea, by means of ____

Shore tank gauges
Measurements taken on the issuing ship

447

Fuel in tanks during fueling is measured by either a ___ or a ___

Tank gauge
Graduated sounding rod

448

Top sounding tapes may also be used in ___

Appropriate tank tables are available

449

The receiving ship is not required to test the quality of fuel received before receipt from ___

Navy-owned stocks

450

During receipt of Navy-owned stocks, fuel will be sampled at the deck connection to monitor for ___

Water and sediment

451

A fuel analysis of API gravity, flashpoint, and water and sediment content will be furnished by the Navy supply source to ___

The CO of the ship receiving replenishment

452

The responsibility for the quality of the product received from an oiler remains with ___ until ___

The transferring ship
The receiving ship accepts the product

453

The oiler will be responsible for ___ any product losses resulting from the customer refusal to accept the product

Surveying

454

DLA-owned bulk fuels are stored in __

DFSPs

455

The procedures for determining the quality, quantity, and acceptability of F-76 and acceptable substitute fuels from DLA stocks are ___

The same as those for receiving fuel from a Navy source

456

The procedures for determining the quantity, quality, and acceptability of emergency substitute fuels from DLA stocks are ___

The same a those for receiving fuel from a commercial supplier not under government contract

457

The procedures for determining the quantity, quality, and acceptability of fuel from NATO storage are ___

The same as those for receiving fuel from a Navy source

458

Types of fuel sampling

All-levels sample
Bottom sample
Line sample
Sounding sample

459

Sample obtained by submerging a closed thief sampler to a point as near as possible the drawing off level, then opening the sampler and raising it at such a rate that it is nearly full as it emerges from the fuel

All-levels sample

460

Taken on the bottom surface of the tank at its lowest point. Usually obtained to check for water, sludge, scale, and other contaminants

Bottom sample

461

Sample obtained from a designated location within the fuel system while the fuel is flowing

Line sample

462

Sample obtained by using a sounding tape and water-indicating paste to determine the water level within the tank

Sounding sample

463

During receipt of F-76, samples shall be drawn at the filling connection to ensure it is clean, at a minimum of ___ shall be tested for BS&W

One sample at the beginning, one in the middle, and one at the end

464

During fueling F-76 visual samples shall be taken every ___

15 minutes

465

If visual samples meet the ___ criteria, then BS&W is not required

Clear and bright

466

If a sample indicates the presence of free water, ___

The delivery shall be discontinued until the cause can be found and corrected

467

Acceptance or rejection of fuel delivered to the ship shall be based on either ___ or ___ sample taken from the supplying tanks

All-levels
Average

468

In all cases, the sample container shall be ___ before use

Thoroughly cleaned

469

Every fuel thief can be used in properly installed ___ sounding tubes

1 1/2"

470

The ___ fuel thief should meet the needs of most applications

120-ml

471

The 132-ml fuel thief may be used where ___ is required

A larger sample volume is required

472

Use the 60-ml fuel thief where sounding tubes are installed with any bend radius less than ___

10'

473

Before purchasing a fuel thief, ship's force should ensure that the selected fuel thief will be able to ___

Travel the full length of the sounding tube

474

The fuel thief contain a ___ hole at the top of the plunger assembly to which a lifting cord can be attached

1/8"

475

Contains a chemical dye that changes color when in contact with water

Water-indicating paste

476

Water-indicating paste contains ___ compounds. Avoid prolonged contact with skin

Organic amine

477

In the presence of water, the water-indicating paste will change from ___ to ___

White-yellow
red

478

The seawater conductivity meter determines if fuel is ___

Contaminated by fresh or saltwater

479

Before using the seawater conductivity meter rinse the tip of the seawater tester with ___

Distilled or de-ionized water

480

What size is the beaker supplied with the seawater conductivity meter?

50 ml

481

Seawater conductivity meter. Last LED signal color? Audible signal? For distilled or de-ionized water (0.05% salt or less)

Green
No

482

Seawater conductivity meter. Last LED signal color? Audible signal? For brackish water, low (0.25% salt or less)

Yellow
No

483

Seawater conductivity meter. Last LED signal color? Audible signal? For brackish water, high (1.5% salt or less)

Orange
No

484

Seawater conductivity meter. Last LED signal color? Audible signal? For seawater (3.8% salt)

Red
Yes

485

Sounding tubes required ___ in a tank to obtain a representative sample

Perforations throughout their length

486

More frequent fuel tank testing is often required during ___

Wartime operations

487

If the test for water level in the storage tank indicates ____ no further testing is required

No water or a level of water lower than the lowest known tank suction level, generally 1-inch or less

488

If the water indicating paste indicates a water level ____, the tank shall be stripped

Higher than the lowest known tank suction level or 3-inches

489

After stripping the storage tanks ____

Test the fuel by the BS&W test

490

If the sample exceeds ____ BS&W, strip the tank again

0.1%

491

Testing and stripping shall continue until the BS&W level falls below ___, or water level is ___

0.1%
1-inch or less

492

The BS&W test is ___ restrictive than the visual clear and bright test

Less

493

For steam boiler ships, the fuel service tanks shall be tested within ___ before being placed online

One hour

494

For diesel engine and gas turbine ships, the fuel service tanks shall be tested within ___ before being place online

8 hours

495

The intent of fuel service tank testing is to ____

Take a sample from the bottom of the tank to ensure fuel quality

496

Using the installed sampling connection on the tank or an external sounding tube for samples, must be flushed a minimum of ___, prior to taking the sample

12 ounces

497

Using the installed sampling connection on the tank or an external sounding tube for samples, can only be used if the sampling pipe terminus has been extended to within ___ of the tank bottom

3 inches

498

Once a clear and bright sample has been obtained, whether to resample prior to putting the tank in use should be based on ___

Good engineering judgment that considers time elapsed and past experience with tank cleanliness

499

Whenever the testing of a fuel storage tank or service tank indicated excessive contamination, use the tank stripping pump to take suction from the tank through the low-suction tailpipe long enough to draw off approximately ___

150 to 300 gallons

500

Discharge stripped fuel to the ___

COST

501

If the designated fuel settling tank is too small, consider using ___ to receive the stripping effluent

A slack fuel storage tank

502

The overboard discharge of fuel is ___

Not allowed

503

Service tank recirculation provides a means of ___

Continuously reducing the amount of solid contamination in the fuel

504

An increase in the pre-filter or coalesce element usage rate or a filter/separator discharge fuel sample exceeding ___ sediment also indicates the need to recirculate fuel

2.64 mg/L

505

Shipboard fuel testing has three purposes

- Establish the level of contamination present in the fuel
- Ensure that the fuel can be stored safely onboard ship
- Establish the density of the fuel for weight distribution and heating value purposes

506

The shipboard tests that may be used to establish fuel contamination levels are

- Clear and bright test
- Bottom sediment and water test (BS&W)
- Free water detector (FWD)
- Contaminated fuel detector (CFD)
- Combined fuel detector test (CCFD)
- In-line fuel quality sensors

507

API/Specific gravity can be determined by ___

Hydrometer testing

508

Absence of visible particulate matter

Clear

509

Absence of suspended water droplets

Bright

510

If the sample does not appear bright after 5 minutes, sample should be warmed ___ or to a minimum of ___, whichever is greater, in a water bath

25*F (14*C)
60*F (15.6*C)

511

Provides a quantitative measurement of the level of water and sediment present in the fuel

BS&W test

512

When conducting the BS&W test, shake the sample vigorously for ___ to ensure ___

30 seconds
Homogeneous distribution of contaminants

513

The fuel temperature at the time of the BS&W test shall be at least ___

60*F (15.6*C)

514

The BS&W test spins at ____ for ___

1500 rpm
15 min

515

Cover the corks for the BS&W test in ___ so that they can be used again

Thin plastic film

516

Set the time for the BS&W test for an additional ___ to allow the centrifuge to attain required speed

One minute

517

Each centrifuge tube in the BS&W test contains ___ of the sample

100 mL

518

Place the two tubes containing the sample on ___ of the centrifuge in the BS&W test

Opposite sides

519

The reading in the BS&W test are a ____

Direct percentage of water and sediment

520

To determine the BS&W of the fuel, ___ the readings from the two centrifuge tubes and ___

Add the readings
Divide by two

521

Free Water Detector test procedure was formerly called ___

AEL MK II

522

Portable instrument designed to quantitatively detect free or mechanically suspended water in aviation distillate fuels such as JP-5

Free Water Detector

523

This unit consists of a view box with an ultra-violet light source, a standard card indicating 0, 5, 10, and 20 ppm water contamination, and detector pads through which the fuel sample is passed for later comparison under the ultraviolet light

Free Water Detector

524

The FWD method employs a water-sensitive indicator dye ____, which is embedded in the detector pads

Sodium fluorescein

525

The FWD is capable of reliably detecting the water contamination levels in the range of ___

0-20 ppm range

526

Contaminated Fuel Detector test was formerly called ____

AEL MK III

527

Used to determine the level of solid contamination in aircraft distillate fuels such as JP-5

Contaminated Fuel Detector test (CFD)

528

This unit consists of a fuel sample container, a fuel filtration system, and a light transmission system

CFD test

529

In this test a volume of fuel is filtered through a Millipore filter paper; any solid particles are retained on the paper, then the filtered fuel is passed through a second filter paper, which is used to indicate fuel coloration, via a beam of light being passed through, and measured

CFD test

530

Allow the CFD test unit to warm up for ___

3 to 5 minutes

531

Combines the functions of the FWD and CFD test kits

Combined Contaminated Fuel Detector (CCFD)

532

Two flashpoint test procedures

Pensky-Martens
NAVIFLASH

533

Flashpoint test procedures allow for the determination of the fuel flashpoint according to ___

ASTM D 93

534

Both flash point test procedures ___

Heat fuel in a closed cup at a specified rate until a flash is detected

535

A flash is detected by ___

Visibly or by sensing pressure build-up

536

The Pensky-Martens method uses an ___

Open flame which is periodically dipped into the test chamber

537

The NAVIFLASH method used an ___

Electric spark and pressure transducer

538

JP-5 flashpoint results obtained via NAVIFLASH testing average ___ lower than those obtained for the same fuel via the PMCC test method

2 to 4 degrees F (1 to 2 degrees C)

539

When a discrepancy exists between the results of the NAVIFLASH method and the PMCC method, the ___ test results shall be used to determine fuel acceptability

PMCC

540

Where ships receive JP-5 while underway and shipboard NAVIFLASH testing shows a flashpoint below the 140*F, ___ from the supplying ship shall suffice

Documentation indicating that the fuel load out quality report meets the 140*F flashpoint requirement

541

In the PMCC method the flame should be ___ in diameter

5/32" (4mm)

542

In the PMCC method apply heat so that the temperature of the sample rises at a rate of ___

10*F (6*C) per minute

543

In the PMCC method, the stirrer should be at a rate of ___

90 to 120 rpm

544

In the PMCC method, apply the test flame when the temperature approaches ___, and thereafter at every ____

30*F (17*C) below the expected flash point
2*F (1*C)

545

In the PMCC method, allow the flame to remain in the chamber for approximately ___

1 second

546

In the PMCC method, the sample stirring method should be ___ when applying the test flame

Disengaged

547

Run calibration programs on the NAVIFLASH if tester is not used within ___

30 days

548

___ is used for calibration in the NAVIFLASH

N-Dodecane fluid

549

Load distribution calculations require knowledge of ___, as do a number of engineering calculations such as estimating heating value

Fuel gravity

550

In the NAVIFLASH method, shall be performed in duplicate using separate samples, agreement should be within ___

±5°F

551

In the NAVIFLASH method, if measured flashpoint is greater or equal to 140°F, ___ light will flash and the screen will display ____ message

Green
ACCEPT FUEL

552

In the NAVIFLASH method, if measured flashpoint is less than 140°F, ____ light will flash and the screen will display ___ message

Red
REJECT FUEL

553

In the API/specific gravity test the glass cylinder shall be filled ____

2/3 full

554

In the API/specific gravity test the fuel temperature should be ___

Approximately the same as the surrounding air

555

In the API/specific gravity test, ensure that the hydrometer does not ___

Touch the sides of the cylinder

556

In the API/specific gravity test, when the hydrometer comes to rest, read the point at which the ___

Surface of the liquid meets the scale on the hydrometer

557

After testing the API/specific gravity, find the API gravity at ___

60°F (15.6°C)

558

Real-time instrument that detects free water and sediment in fuel

In-line fuel quality sensor

559

This sensor continuously emits a laser beam directed across the fuel stream. Contaminates in the fuel scatter the laser beam, and the angle and intensity of the scattered light correlates to the type and concentration of contaminants

In-line fuel quality sensor

560

The results from the In-line fuel quality sensor are displayed in ___

mg/L for solids
ppm for water