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Flashcards in NT: Exam 1 Deck (63):

Who is David?

Life Divided into 4: shepard, courtier, fugitive, and king

kingdom restricted by Abner & Ishbosheth but after their deaths, started conquering cities, starting with Jerusalem and extending his dominions to Euphrates (at the peak, dominated Israel & surrounding areas)

Reign was most brilliant of Israelite history: united tribes into 1 nation, secured undisputed possession of the country, and whole government rested upon the will of God (Law of Israel)

becomes the first symbol of what the Messiah should be


Who is Ezra?

A famous priest & scribe who brought back part of the exiles from captivity. The object of his mission was “to teach in Israel statutes and judgments.” Obtained an edict from Artaxerxes allowing him to take to Jerusalem any Jewish exiles who cared to go, along with offerings for the temple with which he was entrusted, and giving to the Jews various rights and privileges. With Nehemiah he instructed the people in the Mosaic law. “The law” had been exclusive to the priests.
This begins a period in time known as “second-temple Judaism.” Led by Ezra, the Jews vow never to give God a reason to conquer them again. They build a “hedge about the Law” and insist upon a strict rejection of all things not Jewish.



Born in Babylon (the name is Assyrian). Zerubbabel was also known by the Persian name Sheshbazzar. When Cyrus gave permission to the Jews to return to Palestine, Zerubbabel was appointed governor, as the representative of the Jewish royal house. He set up an altar in Jerusalem and rebuilt the temple (Temple of Zerubbabel) being helped by Haggai and Zechariah. In the New Testament he is called “Zorobabel.


Antiochus IV

King of Syria (175–164 B.C.), at a time when Palestine was a Syrian province. He resolved to try to crush all that was distinctive of Jewish nationality and worship.
Caught between the tension of Jewish resistance to outside influence and Hellenism’s demand for uniformity, Judaism begins to fracture under the Syrian ruler Antiochus IV.
The aristocracy begins to give in to Hellenism, but a few staunch Jews continue to fight.


Mattathias and the Maccabees

Resistance began where an aged priest named Mattathias, of the family of Hasmon, slew the sacrificers, and also the king’s officer under whose direction the altar had been erected. (Refuses to offer pagan sacrifice and together with his five sons stages an incredible revolt against Antiochus IV.)
With a large body of followers took refuge among the mountains. They were attacked on the Sabbath, and thousands were slain.
After Mattathias’s death, his son Judas, surnamed Maccabaeus, or “the hammerer,” became the leader. Several great victories were gained. The ruined temple was restored, the desecrated altar was pulled down and reconstructed, and the new altar was dedicated amid great rejoicing. The Jews miraculously win independence for the first time in almost 400 years.


Pompey, the Great (Roman General)

Over time, Hasmonean leadership degenerated into a corrupt political entity. In 63 b.c., at a time when two Hasmonean brothers were vying for power, the Roman general Pompey invaded Jerusalem, and the land of the Jews fell under the control of the Roman Empire



Antipater, an Idumean and father of Herod the Great. He is made procurator (an agent representing others in a court of law in countries retaining Roman civil law or a treasury officer in a province of the Roman Empire) by Pompey.


Herod, the Great

Herod is named “King of the Jews” by the Romans and becomes ruler of Judea in 37 B.C.
Was a successful ruler, and although he has a poor reputation, Herod completed many building projects, including expanding the Temple. Threatened by reports of the birth of the Messiah, ordered the slaying of the children of Bethlehem age two and under


What are the two kingdoms?

Following Soloman's death, Israel is split
Northern Kingdom- Israel
Southern Kingdom - Judah



Number of wicker rulers (Ahab, Jezebel, and etc) lead to the Northern kingdom losing favor with the Lord.
Assyrians laid waste to Israel under Sargon II and conquered Israel in 722 B.C.
As was their custom, Assyria removed the Israelite nobility, and ten tribes became “lost"



Around 600 B.C., Babylon, the successor to Assyria, attacked a rebellious Judah and sacked Jerusalem. Many Jews were later carried off in captivity to Babylon.



Cyrus united the Medes and Persians, conquered Babylon (538 B.C.), and founded the Persian Empire. Judea was a subject province to the Persian Empire.
The Persian Ruler Cyrus the Great, allowed the Jews to return back to Jerusalem.
(One of the leaders of the exile, Zerubbabel, re-builds the temple in 515 B.C.)



The Greeks were educated and their civilization, culture, and philosophy were of great service to the Church. Educated men in the Roman Empire spoke Greek. The Greek language used to preach the gospel as soon as it spread outside Palestine. The Greeks, or Hellenes, are men who are Greek by descent; Grecians, or Hellenists, are Greek-speaking Jews.

In 330 B.C., a young Greek named Alexander decides to conquer the world.
His plan is to “Hellenize” all his conquered people in order to instill unity and break down barriers.

Legacy: spread Greek culture beyond the Greeks (Greek culture became "Hellenistic" as it spread and mingled with other cultures
The Greek “Old Testament” is called the “Septuagint”

Following Alexander’s death, his empire was split up among his three top generals.
Judah is now in a perilous position between Syria and Egypt.



The Empire included a great variety of peoples. The Roman government of the provinces was not on the whole oppressive, though taxation was always heavy. It was the policy of Rome to treat all national religions with respect.


Time Line

Egypt, Assyria (Northern - Isreal), Babylon (Southern - Judah), Persia, Greeks, Maccabees, and Romans


Time Line w/ People

David, Split of two kingdoms (north & south), wicked rulers in the north, Assyrians take over Northern (10 lost tribes), Babylon take over Southern, Persia takes over Babylon (Jews can return to Jerusalem, one of them is Zerubbabel and he rebuilds the temple & Ezra was the priest & scribe), Greeks (Alexander the Great) takes over and spreads Hellenism, Antiochus IV gives in to Hellenism but Jews, Maccabees (lead by Mattathias, member of the Hasmonean family), begin to fight back, then Pompey takes over, Roman general. Antipater is made procurator and his son is Herod the great.


Judaisms, not one Judaism

Caught between the extreme isolation of Judaism and the forced assimilation of Hellenism, Judaism fractures into 4 major groups around 180 B.C. (time of the Maccabees):
1) Pharisees
2) Sadducees
3) Essenes
4) Zealots



closer to Jesus’ teachings than the other sects, About 6000 in number in 1st Century (1% of population), From Hebrew parush, meaning “separated.” They controlled the local synagogues. The “Scribes” were the leaders and influential members of the Pharisees. Jesus’ condemnation of the Pharisees arises from their hypocrisy. Believe in the resurrection, angels, and strong belief of after life

A group of pious Jews whose name denotes separatists—in particular, they separated themselves from Gentile impurities. Pharisees sought strict observance of the law of Moses and Jewish rituals. They upheld the authority of oral tradition (A secret tradition given to Moses at Mt. Sinai and handed down orally until the time of Jesus) as being of equal value to written scripture. In general, the Pharisees were a major source of opposition to Jesus Christ


Oral Law

A secret tradition given to Moses at Mt. Sinai and handed down orally until the time of Jesus.
Meant to supplement belief in the TaNaK
Building a “hedge about the Law.” - adding rules and adding laws, add commandments to protect laws


Law of Moses

Collection of written laws given through Moses to the house of Israel, as a replacement of the higher law that they had failed to obey. The law of Moses consisted of many ceremonies, rituals, and symbols, to remind the people frequently of their duties and responsibilities. It included a law of carnal commandments and performances, added to the basic laws of the gospel. Faith, repentance, baptism in water, and remission of sins were part of the law, as were also the Ten Commandments. Although inferior to the fulness of the gospel, there were many provisions in the law of Moses of high ethical and moral value that were equal to the divine laws of any dispensation. The law of carnal commandments and much of the ceremonial law were fulfilled at the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The law functioned under the Aaronic Priesthood and was a preparatory gospel to bring its adherents to Christ. The Jewish Christians in particular had difficulty giving up the ritual of the law of Moses. The law as given through Moses was a good law, although adapted to a lower spiritual capacity than is required for obedience to the gospel in its fulness. However, the Jewish leaders had added many unauthorized provisions, ceremonies, and prohibitions to the original law, until it became extremely burdensome. These innovations were known as the “traditions of the elders.” By New Testament times among the Jews the law had become so altered it had lost much of its spiritual meaning. It is this form of the law that is so harshly spoken against by Jesus and by Paul.



Name probably comes from “Zadok,” the name of Solomon’s High Priest (Under the law of Moses the presiding officer of the Aaronic Priesthood was called the high priest. The office was hereditary and came through the firstborn among the family of Aaron, Aaron himself being the first high priest of the Aaronic order) . Thus the Sadducees are in charge of the Temple and are in large part aristocratic. The Pharisees downplayed the temple in favor of salvation through the Law of Moses. Believed only in the Torah. Denied resurrection and immortality of the soul, angering the Pharisees. Jesus’ most violent opponents

An elite group composed of aristocratic high
priestly families who had gained prominence during
the Hasmonean period. Though relatively few in number,
they held considerable power, especially over the
administration of the temple in Jerusalem. They opposed
Jesus Christ for His cleansing of the temple, which they
regarded as an affront to their authority. They rejected
traditions and beliefs not found in the written law of
Moses, putting them at odds with the Pharisees and
many other Jews. In particular, they rejected belief in
angels, immortality, judgment, and resurrection. These
beliefs were the cause of much of the animosity they
had toward the Savior.
(religion only for this world, God exists, but we're only here during this time)



Together, the Pharisees and the Sadducees formed a ruling committee of 71 men know as the Sanhedrin. This group was headed by the High Priest

This Greek term means “council.” When the term (or its English equivalent “council”) is used without qualification in the New Testament, it generally refers to the Great Sanhedrin that was headquartered in Jerusalem. This Jewish council regulated the internal affairs of the Jewish nation. It consisted of 70 members and a high priest who presided over the council. Its membership was drawn from the Jewish elite— chief priests, scribes, Pharisees, Sadducees, and elders.



Sometime after the Maccabean revolt, a group of Jews leave Jerusalem and settle in Qumran, around the area of the Dead Sea. The cause of their departure was most likely frustration at the Maccabean assumption of both kingly and priestly authority. They practiced an ascetic form of life, abstaining from marriage, wine, and animal food. They took no part in the temple worship, having priests and ministers of their own. The records of this community have miraculously been preserved and are known as the Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered in 1947.


Dead Sea Scrolls

The significance of the Scrolls is in how they preserve a form of Judaism 200 years prior to the birth of Christianity. Hierarchy of 3 high priests assisted by 12 elders
Communal order with oaths and water purification rituals
Took three year trial period just to get in!



Zealots were political revolutionaries who grew more opposed to Rome. After frequent revolts, Rome was forced to intervene in 66 A.D. Largely agreed with Pharisaic beliefs, with the exception of submission to Roman rule. Believed that if they created war so they can get the Messiah to happen
Under the Roman General Titus, Rome attacked Jerusalem and destroyed the city, including the Temple, in 70 A.D.
The Essenes are also wiped out during this time.
About 900 Zealots fled Jerusalem to the fortress of Masada, where they would hold out for three years. After consistent battering by the Roman 10th legion, the fortress fell. Upon entering Masada, the Romans found everybody dead from an apparent mass suicide!


Fall of Jerusalem/ New Judaism

As a result of the destruction of Jerusalem and the loss of the Temple, the Pharisees remain as the lone Jewish sect.
These Jews circled the wagons once again, and Rabbinic Judaism is born.
Following another revolt in 132 A.D., known as the Bar Kokhba revolt, Judea was consolidated into the state of Palestine.
Not until 1948 would the kingdom of Israel regain its independence.


Samaritans - another Jewish sect?

The Samaritans claimed to be the true people of Israel and claimed that the legitimate line of Aaron went through them.
They even had their own temple, at Mt. Gerizim. (Built in 5th B.C.)
Today, there are just over 700 Samaritans remaining.

The Jews, however, claimed that the Samaritans were impure and unclean, a mixture of Jew and Gentile blood which had merged following the Assyrian destruction of Israel.

mixture of Gentile blood


Samaritan Beliefs

Samaritans had their own version of the Torah, known as the “Samaritan Pentateuch”
They were monotheistic, professing a belief in the god of the Old Testament.
They also looked forward to the coming of a Messiah, called by them the Taheb.
They reject all other Jewish scriptures and laws.


Diaspora Jews.

In addition to the Jews living around Jerusalem, there were also Jews who lived outside the Holy Land, known as Diaspora Jews
These Jews were probably a little more Hellenized and a little less strict, but they still believed very much in Judaism.



A Gentile could convert to Judaism by being ritually purified, circumcised, and living the Law of Moses. They were known as Proselytes.



Some Gentiles wanted to live certain aspects of Judaism without fully committing. They were known as God-fearers.


Bible in Aramaic

An official language of the Persian Empire, spoken widely throughout the Near East. Certain portions of the Old Testament are written in Aramaic.
The common language of the Jews after the return from Babylon was Aramaic (Babylonians speak Aramaic.
Aramaic replaces Hebrew as common language of the Jews), and it is most probable that Jesus and the Twelve spoke Galilean Aramaic, rather than the Hebrew of earlier times.
In the beginning...Around 30 A.D., Jesus speaks and teaches the Jews in Aramaic


Bible in Hebrew

The Bible is a translation of a translation of a translation, working with languages like Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and English.


Bible in Greek

Around 50 A.D., Paul begins to write letters to other churches in Greek.
A little later, between 65-95 A.D., the writers of the Gospels record the words of Jesus, also in Greek.

Septuagint - The Greek translation of the Old Testament made in the first instance for the use of Greek-speaking Jews


Bible in Latin & Jermone

In 382 A.D., the Pope asked a scholar named Jerome to produce a Latin translation of the Bible. The result of his work is known as the Vulgate.


Transmission vs. Translation

Translation the process of translating words or text from one language into another.

Transmission deals with the method of how manuscripts are copied and passed down
through the centuries


In what different ways did errors occur? Intentional? Unintentional?

-Early manuscripts were written in “continuous script.” (i.e. no spaces between words)
-Idioms and nuances are very difficult to translate literally, and still remain understandable.
-mistakes are made more on transmission than translation
-Scribal changes were sometimes PURPOSEFUL and sometimes ACCIDENTAL.
-sometimes, however, the copyist would purposefully attempt to determine theology, this could be done by either adding to or removing from the text


Problems with Transmission

As the monks would be copying the manuscripts, problems and mistakes would sometimes occur:
1: Skipping Lines
2: Read the wrong word
all’ois vs allois in Mark 10:40
catsanddogs or unionized
3: Hear the wrong word
neikos (conflict) vs nikos (victory)
4: Add in comments from the margins


Was the JST ever finished, according to Joseph Smith?

Joseph declared the JST finished on 2 July 1833


Important Lesson (JST)

-The presence of a JST change does not automatically mean that the KJV text is wrong.
-The JST could be an additional meaning or interpretation.
-Don’t ignore the KJV text, even where there is a JST change.





Bible in English

The 1st English translation of the Bible had been done by Wycliffe in 1382, taken from Jerome's Latin Vulgate. However, it was William Tyndale in 1525 who, working directly from the Greek TR, published the very important Tyndale Bible. Tyndale introduced new words such as Jehovah, Passover, Scapegoat, and Atonement.
More English translations followed, including the first modern English Bible, the Coverdale Bible, and the very political Geneva Bible.
The Geneva Bible was used largely by Protestants and was the Bible brought to America by the Pilgrims. It was also first version to be divided into verses. In the Geneva Bible, the number 666 is connected with the Pope!

In an attempt to stop the madness, King James I in 1604 called for a definitive English translation of the Bible. 54 scholars worked for seven years to produce the KJV.Probably about 90% of the KJV is translated correctly, from beginning to end, and of the remaining 10% only about 5% is important.





Theophilus (What does the name mean?)

Friend of God. The person to whom Luke addressed his Gospel and the Acts.



The geographic spread of the gospel throughout the world.
Acts 1:8
Acts ends with Paul preaching in Rome
Gospel can appeal to everyone!


Conflict between Jews & Gentiles

The transition from a Jewish church to a Jewish and Gentile church.
Remember, the Jews considered Gentiles unclean unless the converted to Judaism.
There was probably no greater source of conflict within the early Christian church than this clashing of cultures.

Will our new colleagues have to follow the honor code, or should it be optional?
If it did become optional, would you stay?
What about a compromise?


Holy Ghost

The role of the Holy Ghost.
Without Jesus, the Holy Ghost now takes over as the inspirational witness of the word of God.
This had been a pivotal theme in Luke’s gospel as well
Jesus came only to the Jews—the Holy Ghost is crucial to the Gentile mission!


How did they choose a new apostle?

Therefore it is necessary to choose one of the men who have been with us the whole time the Lord Jesus was living among us, beginning from John’s baptism to the time when Jesus was taken up from us. For one of these must become a witness with us of his resurrection.”
Casted lots (similar to voting)


Day of Pentecost (what was it and what did it mean for Christianity?)

start to harvest Jesus ministry, start to spring forth
comes after the passover, fulfillment of the passover
During those 50 days the harvest of wheat was being gathered in. It is called “the feast of harvest, the first fruits of thy labours” and “the feast of weeks.”
Modern day comparison to the Kirkland Temple


Peter's kerygma 2:15-39 (preaching)

A. V15
B. v16 - Why Joel?
Result? (v. 41-46) 3,000 souls baptized, taking the sacrament, following the gospel, wonders and signs, miracles are happening, temple worship, law of con.


Stephen's Message & Martydom

“You stiff-necked people! Your hearts and ears are still uncircumcised. You are just like your ancestors: You always resist the Holy Spirit! Was there ever a prophet your ancestors did not persecute? They even killed those who predicted the coming of the Righteous One. And now you have betrayed and murdered him you who have received the law that was given through angels but have not obeyed it.”

1. Rejected moses
2. Rejected god's true nature,
3. Temple doesn't reflect God's way
4. Broken the law

Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. “Look,” he said, “I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.”

they all rushed at him, dragged him out of the city and began to stone him. While they were stoning him, Stephen prayed, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” then he fell on his knees and cried out, “Lord, do not hold this sin against them.” When he had said this, he fell asleep.


Structure of Paul’s letters, the letter writing process

Very expensive process
-Hire scribe, then sign name
-Someone then hand-delivers the letter

Paul’s Epistles
-Main Body
-Pauline Indicative: Encouragement and Teaching
-Pauline Imperative: Ethical and Moral advice/admonition
-Concluding remarks


Earliest epistle, probably 48-49 AD. Occasion? Paul’s mood

"O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?" (Gal. 3:10)
Conflict and Crisis in Galatia


Paul & Peter

-world wide concerns, concerned if moving too fast, but need to move
-Peter won't sit down, group struggles Paul worried taught wrong concept


Paul's Theology

-equation procedure isn't good (comparing ourselves we compare each other)
-battle the law of moses, CANNOT stick to the law of moses, won't save us used as a school master to prepare us to obey
-saved by grace alone ONLY if we think about it as ONLY through God can we be saved
-what is faith (by Paul)? Through faith, we can get the saving grace, our motivations, believe God is able to save me? Looking to his requirements

Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.


Justification & Sanctification

Justification =
being declared not guilty
being born again
being alive in Christ
being “perfect in Christ”
being “yoked”/united w/ Christ
Sanctification =
becoming holy and pure
obtaining the divine nature
becoming as Christ



A word that occurs frequently in the New Testament, especially in the writings of Paul. The main idea of the word is divine means of help or strength, given through the bounteous mercy and love of Jesus Christ.

It is through the grace of the Lord Jesus, made possible by His atoning sacrifice, that mankind will be raised in immortality, every person receiving his body from the grave in a condition of everlasting life.


Order of the Epistles in the New Testament

The Epistles of Paul are arranged in order of length, from longest (Romans) to shortest (Philemon), with the exception of Hebrews because its authenticity was questioned. General Epistles (James, Peter, John, Jude) come after, followed by Revelation.
Early persecution was Jewish. Later persecution was Roman. Early membership was mostly Jewish, & questions answered were about the gospel & the Law of Moses. Later membership was increasingly Gentile, and problems involved items of Greek philosophy.


1 Thessalonians:

Early epistle, probably 51-52 AD
Two major issues: Resurrection & Second Coming–Doctrine of the Rapture


Second Coming

Paul wrote 1st Thessalonians to encourage the saints to live worthy lives in preparation for the coming of the Lord.


Paul’s point is that two events must happen prior to the return of Jesus.

Two things should happen before the second coming:
-mutiny & rebellion
-man of sin is going to be revealed, son of perdition


What does apostia mean? (2 Theso)

The “apostasy” is not a gradual “falling away,” but a mutiny against Jesus!
The abomination of desolation - god's people become wicked enough that there's this desolation, they are overthrown


What does he feel about laziness? (2 Theso)

if there is someone in community, not wanting to work, it'll destroy society