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Flashcards in Nuclear decay Deck (31)
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1

How many joules is one electron volt?

It is 1.6x10^-19 joules.

2

What is the proton number (aka atomic number)?

It is the number of protons in an elements atom.

3

What is emitted during Alpha decay?

Alpha decay emits 2 protons and 2 neutrons
(very ionising).

4

What can an Alpha particle be stopped/blocked by?

An Alpha particle can be stopped by a tissue paper.

5

What is emitted during Beta decay?

Beta decay emits an electron.

6

What can a Beta particle be stopped by?

A Beta particle can be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminium.

7

What is emitted during Gamma decay?

Gamma decay releases photons/ radioactive rays.

8

What can Gamma be stopped by?

Gamma can be stopped by a thick layer of lead.

9

What equation can be used to work out the energy of a wave (of e.g. a photon)?

E=hf ( energy = Plancks constant x frequency)

10

What is Plancks constant (h)?

h = 6.63x10^-34

11

What equation can be used to figure out a waves wavelength or its frequency?

c=&f (speed of light = lambda x frequency)
-lambda means wavelength and is represented as '&' in this case.

12

What is the speed of light?

300,000,000 m/s
=3x10^8 m/s

13

What is the nucleon number (aka atomic mass number)?

The number of protons plus neutrons in an element (number of nucleons in an atom).

14

Why can Gamma radiation be stopped by what it can be stopped by?

Gamma can be stopped by thick layer of lead, this is because lead is so dense, the higher the density, the less space between the atoms within the material for particles to pass through, in this case so dense it doesn't let photons through.

15

Why can Beta particles be stopped by what it can be stopped by?

Beta particles can be stopped by a thin layer of aluminium , the electron in a Beta particle is too large to fit through the gaps between the atoms in aluminium, therefore stopping.

16

Why can Alpha particles be stopped by what they can be stopped by?

Alpha particles can be stopped by a tissue paper, this is because Alpha particles are so large (2 neutron and 2 protons), this causes a very thin layer of atoms to be enough to stop the particle as it is too large to fit through.

17

What is the mass of an electron?

9.11x10^-31 kg

18

What is the charge of an electron?

-1.6x10^-19 C

19

What is the mass of a proton?

1.67x10^-27 kg

20

What is the charge of a proton?

1.6x10^-19 C

21

What is the mass of a neutron?

1.67x10^-27 kg

22

What is the charge of a neutron?

0 C

23

What is ionisation?

Ionisation is the process of an atom gaining a positive or negative charge, by either gaining or losing an electron.

24

What happens to the nucleon and proton number due to beta minus decay?

Beta minus decay causes the 'original elements' nucleon number to remain equal but its proton number to increase by 1.

25

What happens to the nucleon and proton number during beta plus decay?

Beta plus decay causes the 'original elements' nucleon number to remain equal but its proton number to decrease by 1.

26

How far can an alpha particle travel in the air?

A few centimeters (around 4cm).

27

How far can a beta particle travel in the air?

Around 1 meter.

28

How far can gamma travel in air?

An infinte distance.

29

What happens to the nucleon or proton number when gamma is emitted from the atom?

Nothing, proton or nucleon number does not change.

30

What happens to the nucleon and proton number when an alpha particle is emitted?

The nucleon number decreases by 4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons) and the proton number decreases by 2 (same 2 protons)

31

What is an isotope?

A variance of a particular chemical element which has a different amount of neutrons compared to the 'original', but the same amount of protons.