Nucleic Acids Flashcards Preview

BMB final > Nucleic Acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nucleic Acids Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

Fred Griffith

experimented with pneumococcal strings, smooth (S) and rough (R)

found that hereditary material of harmful pneumonia cells transformed cells of a harmless strain into killers

2

Avery and McCarty

found the Transforming Principle by separating deadly S cells into lipid, protein and nucleic acid components

Conclusion: DNA is the "transforming principle"

3

Hershey and Chase

demonstrated different functions of protein and DNA with their T2 bacteriophage experiment

proteins contain more S than P, DNA is opposite
DNA remained in bacterial cell

4

composition of a DNA nucleotide

nitrogenous base, deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate

5

3',5' phosphodiester bonds

join the 3'-hydroxyl of one nucleotide to the 5'-phosphate of another

the antiparallel structure allows for hydrogen bonds to form between the nitrogenous bases

6

gene

DNA sequence that contains the base sequence information to code for a gene product, protein or RNA

7

genome

a complete DNA base sequence

8

replication

DNA synthesis that involves complimentary base pairing in two strands that comprise the DNA helix

9

genetic code

sequence of bases

10

transcription

RNA synthesis

involves complimentary base pairing of ribonucleotides to DNA bases

11

transcript

a new RNA

12

transcriptome

total RNA transcript's for an organism

13

translation

synthesis of a protein

14

mRNA

messenger RNA specifies the primary protein sequence

15

tRNA

transfer RNA delivers the specific amino acid

16

rRNA

ribosomal RNA is a component of ribosomes

17

proteosome

the entire set of proteins synthesized

18

Gene expression

process by which cells control the timing of gene product synthesis in response to environmental or developmental cues

19

The Central Dogma

DNA -> RNA -> protein

retroviruses go in the reverse direction

20

chromosomes

DNA which contains genes

21

E. Coli chromosome

circular DNA molecule that is extensively looped and coiled

22

nucleoid

where the chromosome is attached to the protein core in at least 40 places, which limits the unraveling of DNA

23

Eukaryotes have _____ genomes when compared to prokaryotes

larger

24

Chromatin

DNA with associated proteins

25

Chromosome

condensed chromatin made up of linear DNA and associated proteins (visible during mitosis)

26

Nucleosomes

formed by the binding of DNA and his tome proteins

27

Epigenic modifications can _____

modify the accessibility of DNA

28

prokaryotic genome coding capacity

compact and continuous ; contain few to none noncoding sequences

29

Eukaryotic genome

- larger than prokaryotes
- enormous coding capacity, but majority of DNA is noncoding
- genes are interrupted by nonbonding introns, which can be removed by splicing