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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (35)
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1

Pancreatic Islets

secrete insulin and glucagon in response to changes in blood glucose levels

2

Beta cells

secrete insulin when glucose is highstimulates glucose uptake by muscle and liver cells, which lowers blood glucose levels

3

Alpha cells

secrete glucagon when glucose is lowstimulates release of glucose

4

Who discovered insulin?

Joseph von Mering and Oscar Minkowski

5

Other names for Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

IDDM, Type 1, Brittle, Juvenile Onset

6

What is the cause of IDDM?

the central problem is the lack of insulin. The beta cells may have been destroyed

7

autoimmunity

antibodies can be made against beta cells in IDDM

8

Polygenic

different genes contribute to the expression of diabetes

9

Gene IDDM1

responsible for beta cells displaying improper antigens to T cells, which provokes attacking

10

Epigenics

studies have been done with twins (same genetic makeup) and suggests that environmental factors play a role in "turning on" genes linked by Type 1 diabetes

11

IDDM1. age of onset2. genetics3. immunity4. body weight5. metabolism6. treatment

1. usually <45, often childhood or young adults2. fewer than 10% of 1st degree relatives affected3. an increased incidence of autoimmunity4. usually lean5. ketosis prone6. insulin and controlled diet and exercise

12

hyperglycemia

increased levels of glucose in the blood

13

Ketosis

increased oxidation of fats for energy

14

what yields the synthesis of ketones?

increased abundance of acetyl CoA

15

diabetic ketoacidosis

caused by accumulated ketone bodies in the blood that aren't buffered and cause the blood to become acidicmay lead to diabetic coma

16

signs of diabetic ketoacidosis

- thirst or very dry mouth- frequent urination- high blood glucose levels- high levels of ketones in the urine- fatigue- nausea, vomiting, ab pain- hard time breathing- fruity odor on breath- hard time paying attention; confusion

17

Without insulin the liver increases _____ to make glucose and _____ to break down glycogen. These two processes result in an increase of ___ in the blood.

gluconeogensisglycogenolysisglucose

18

Without insulin the adipose tissue increases the breakdown of ____ due to unopposed action to glucagon and releases _____ into the blood. This leads to an increased production of _____ and results in ______.

fatsfatty acidsketonesketogenesis

19

What is the treatment for IDDM and how does it work?

Insulin pumpit delivers short fast acting insulin around the clock through the catheter placed under the skin. It separates your insulin dosage into the basal rate and the bolus rate.

20

other names for Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

NIDDM, Type 2 maturity onset, adult onset, stable diabetes

21

NIDDM1. age of onset2. genetics3. immunity4. body weight5. metabolism6. treatment

1. usually after 30, epidemic among obesity2. >25% of 1st degree relatives are affected3. no increased incidence of autoimmunity in patients4. overweight or obese5. ketosis resistant6. weight loss, exercise, proper diet, may need glucose lowering agents or insulin over time

22

What causes NIDDM?

the central problem is insulin resistance; most common cause is down regulation of insulin receptors

23

Body Mass Index

measure of body fat based on weight and height that applies to both men and women25-29.9 is overweight30+ is obese

24

formula for BMI

= (weight in lbs x 7-3)/(height in in.)^2

25

T or F: Ketosis occurs only in NIDDM?

false! ketosis does NOT occur in NIDDM

26

Hyperosmolar Coma

enough insulin is present in NIDDM to prevent ketosis, but there is enough insulin resistance to create a very high glucose level in blood and extracellular fluid. This causes H2O to flow to the tissues and cause dehydration.

27

Three P's of diabetes

1. polyuria2. polyphagia3. polydipsia

28

Polyuria

increased urination to get rid of the extra sugar can lead to dehydration

29

Polyphagia

frequent hungerin NIDDM more insulin is being produced (but not effective) and insulin increases hunger

30

Polydipsia

excessive thirstbody encourages more water consumption to dilute the high blood sugar