Nuthall Disease Dilemmas Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nuthall Disease Dilemmas Deck (58):
1

Zoonotic disease?

Infections diseases such as rabies, plague, psittacosis which are transmitted firm animals to humans

2

Non- infectious disease?

Non communicable
Main cause of death in developed countries and increasing in developing countries

3

........ billion people are at risk of malaria in ..... countries

3.2billion
In 97 countries

4

Malaria us transmitted by the .......... Mosquito

Anopheles

5

In 2015 ........million people were infected with HIV/AIDS worldwide

35 million

6

In Lesotho more than ........(fraction)carry HIV/AIDS

1/4

7

.......% of AIDS death's occur in low and middle income countries although it is present in all regions

95%

8

In 2012 ........ cases of West Nile virus were reported in the USA

5,500
Too hot in East Africa for tsetse fly to survive

9

Brazil:
In 1974 there were 2 underweight for every overweight, this was reversed by ....

1997

10

Malaria is endemic to .....% of Ethiopia's land area
......%of the population live in these areas.

75%
25%

11

GlaxoSmithkline 2013 turnover of £.......billion

23billion

12

GlaxoSmithkline employs ...... People in R&D

13,000

13

GlaxoSmithkline caps prices of patented drugs in LIDC' to .................

25% of UK prices

14

What did Project Medishare do in Haiti

Travel door to door, making it possible for people in most remote areas to access health services

15

Project Medishare
Since 2010 .........medical professionals(number) have volunteered with them in Haiti

9000

16

What do Women First do in Ethiopia?

Support the formation and facilitation of women's group using a participatory approach that empowers communities to take action to improve reprodctuve, maternal and newborn child +adolescent health.

17

How many womens groups has Women First established in Ethiopia?

More than 6000

18

UnAids
Established?

1996

19

UnAids
Aims to end AIDS endemic as a public health problem by ........

2030

20

UnAids
There are ......UN theme groups (number) that operate across .......(no.) countries.

130 theme groups
155 countries

21

During the period of infection, there were ........ reported cases of SARS and ..... deaths

8098 cases
774 deaths

22

SARS
How many countries affected worldwide?

29 countries

23

Cancer rates have risen by ........% for women in the UK since 1970

43%

24

India's young fast food market is already worth US$ ........ billion.

15 billion

25

In Haiti only .....% of the population have access to healthcare.

17%

26

In Haiti only.......% of the population had access to drinking water and ....% to reliable latriens

60%
And 17%

27

More than ...... billion people globally are overweight or obese

2.1 billion

28

......% of cancer cases are preventable and can be linked with lifestyle choices.

42%

29

Lost production in Sub-Daharan Africa due to Malaria is estimated to be US$ .......billion a year

$ 12 billion a year

30

In Ethiopia, Malaria absorbed .....% of national health expenditure

40%

31

As temperatures rise, Trypanasomasis( sleeping sickness) is likely to spread into southern Africa. However??

However it may disappear firm East Africa where the climate may become too hot for the Tsetse larvae to survive.

32

Almost 50% of Ebola cases have been directly linked to.........

Bushmeat consumption and handling

33

Between October 2010 and Oct 2013 there were mare than ..... cases of cholera in Haiti

682,500 cases

34

The arrival of Hurricane ........... In Haiti in November 2010 casued rapid flooding in many parts of the country, leading to overflowing latriens and Futher spreading of ......... infected water.

Hurricane Tomas
Cholera

35

During 2014 UNOPS reached over........people with Cholera awareness campaigns and disinfect ........ households and distributed ...... Cholera kits.

175,350 people
840 households
2500 cholera kits

36

In 2001 only 41 Chinese cities measured and reported their air quality everyday, now it's ........ citys

300 citys

37

.....million people are living with cancer in the UK today, costing the UK economy £......billion a year due to ......

2 million
£15 Billion
Early deaths, patient taking time out of eork, NHS treatment and cost of unpaid care.

38

......% more women in the most affluent group survive bladder cancer compared with their most deprived counterparts.

14.2%

39

In Africa NCD's are projected to exceed communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional diseases by .....

2030

40

Expansionary diffusion??

A disease has a source and spreads outwards into new areas. Carriers in the source area remain infected.

41

Relocation diffusion??

Occurs when a disease lives in the area or origin and moves to new areas. Haiti- cholera moved firm Nepal

42

Contagious diffusion????

Describes the spread of disease through direct contact with a carrier. It is strongly influenced by distance. Ebola 2014-15

43

Hierarchical diffusion???

A disease spreads through an ordered sequence of places, usually from the largest centres with the highest connectivity to smaller more isolated centres.

44


What is Hägerstrand's diffusion model??

Model for the diffusion of contagious diseases.
Distance decay
S shaped curve
Time on z-axis
Cumulative % infected on y-axis

45

What are the 4 stages of the Epidemiological Transition Model??

1) The age of pestilence and famine
2) The age of receding pandemics
3) The age of degenerative and man-made diseases
4) The age of delayed degenerative diseases and emerging infections diseases.

46

The age of pestilence and famine

Mortality is high
Life expectancy is low and variable
Today all countries have passed through this phase

47

The age of receding pandemics

Life expectancy rises above 50 years and population growth is sustained.
Main cause of death shifts firm infections diseases to chronic and degenerative ones.

48

The age of degenerative and man-made diseases

Rates of mortality slackens
Futher improvement in living standards mean mortality due to infections diseases is rare.
Degenerative disease becomes main cause of mortality.

49

The age of delayed degenerative diseases and emerging infectious diseases

Where medical advancements delay the onset of degenerative diseases and CVDs
Obesity and diabetes become increasingly common and problematic health factors

50

Mitigation against pandemic - Malaria
Prevention strategies? (4 of them)

Promoting human rights and equality for groups most at risk.
More tolerant society encourages the use of health programmes.
Male circumcision reduces transfer rates although this may be culturally unacceptable.
Data gathering - epidemiology of HIV virus leads to more targeted prevention.

51

Mitigation against pandemic - Malaria
Diagnosis? 2 of them

Screening for HIV antibodies in blood and saliva samples.
Early diagnosis reduces the changes of developing AIDS.

52

Mitigation against pandemic - Malaria
Treatment ?

Botswana's govt implemented 2 programmes between 2004 and 2016
Multilateral agencies such as the WHO and UNICEF.
Low cost antiretroviral drugs (AVRs) widely available.
Today out of the 8 million people that receive HIV/AIDS drugs 6 million are supported by The Global Fund and its partners.
UN backed initiative through which pharmaceutical companies have been granting licences to generic drug makers in developing countries to make cheaper drugs for HIV/AIDS.

53

Mitigation against pandemic - Malaria
Effectiveness?

Number of new HIV infections was 33% lower in 2013 than 2001.
The overall UN Millennium Development Goal (goal 6) was mostly achieved but access to treatment for all HIV/AIDS sufferers by 2010 was not achieved.
By mid 2007, 20.9 million people were receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy globally. However nearly half of all people in need are still waiting for treatment.

54

Nigeria coped very well with the Ebola outbreak in 2013-16. only ....... became ill and ...... died.
In contrast to Sierra Leone where there was........ deaths in 2014 alone.

19 people became ill
7 died
3956

55

SARS first spread on the .......th floor of the ............ hotel in .... ....

9th floor
The Metropole hotel
Hong Kong

56

.................. Bay divides the state of Maryland into two, reducing the spread of .......... in 1917-38

Chesapeake
Measles

57

Nepal ........ earthquake leading to landslides preventing access therefore reducing response to the ..........epidemic.

2015
Cholera

58

Half of the .......... tribe in Peru was wiped out in the early 1980s after they were contacted by the first time by ........ .........

Nahua
Oil explorers.