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Flashcards in Nutrients Deck (14)
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1

What are macronutrients?

The main nutrients we need in our diet.
These are protein, fat and carbohydrates.

2

What is protein needed for?

-growth
-repair
-maintenance
-energy

3

What are proteins made up off?

amino acids

4

What's the difference between essential and non-essential amino acids?

Essential - body can't make so we need to eat (9 essential)
Non-essential - body can make (11 non-essential)

5

What are HBV proteins?

High Biological Value proteins
-contain all of the essential amino acids
-mainly animal sources
eg. meat, soya beans, poultry

6

What are LBV proteins?

Low Biological Value proteins
-don't contain all of the essential amino acids
-only plant sources
eg. lentils, beans

7

What problems does an excess of protein cause?

Pressure and strain on the liver and kidneys

8

What problems does a deficiency in protein cause?

-slowed growth
-immune system can't work properly (wounds take longer to heal, infections more likely)
-digestion doesn't work properly (not all nutrients taken in)
-oedema (build up of fluid in body that causes swelling)
-kwashiorkor (severe disease)

9

What are some alternative proteins for vegetarians?

-soya (plant based HBV source)
-mycoprotein (fungus)
-TVP [textured vegetable protein] (ground soya beans to make a dough)
-tofu (curdled soya milk)

10

What does fat provide?

-concentrated source of energy
-insulation
-protection for organs
-vitamins A and D
-essential fatty acids

11

What are saturated fats?

-solid at room temp
-animal source
-unhealthier than unsaturated

12

What are unsaturated fats?

-soft/liquid room temp
-vegetable sources
-healthier than saturated

13

What are the differences between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats?

monounsaturated - contain one double carbon bond
polyunsaturated - contain more than one double carbon bond

14

Name the two essential fatty acids and examples

omega-3
help brain function and reduce risk of heart disease
eg. oily fish, seeds

omega-6
help lower blood cholestrol and reduce inflammation
eg. chicken. nuts, vegetable oils