Flashcards in Nutrients Deck (14)
What are macronutrients?
The main nutrients we need in our diet.
These are protein, fat and carbohydrates.
What is protein needed for?
What are proteins made up off?
What's the difference between essential and non-essential amino acids?
Essential - body can't make so we need to eat (9 essential)
Non-essential - body can make (11 non-essential)
What are HBV proteins?
High Biological Value proteins
-contain all of the essential amino acids
-mainly animal sources
eg. meat, soya beans, poultry
What are LBV proteins?
Low Biological Value proteins
-don't contain all of the essential amino acids
-only plant sources
eg. lentils, beans
What problems does an excess of protein cause?
Pressure and strain on the liver and kidneys
What problems does a deficiency in protein cause?
-immune system can't work properly (wounds take longer to heal, infections more likely)
-digestion doesn't work properly (not all nutrients taken in)
-oedema (build up of fluid in body that causes swelling)
-kwashiorkor (severe disease)
What are some alternative proteins for vegetarians?
-soya (plant based HBV source)
-TVP [textured vegetable protein] (ground soya beans to make a dough)
-tofu (curdled soya milk)
What does fat provide?
-concentrated source of energy
-protection for organs
-vitamins A and D
-essential fatty acids
What are saturated fats?
-solid at room temp
-unhealthier than unsaturated
What are unsaturated fats?
-soft/liquid room temp
-healthier than saturated
What are the differences between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats?
monounsaturated - contain one double carbon bond
polyunsaturated - contain more than one double carbon bond