Flashcards in Nutrients (AA and Vitamins) Deck (49):
Essential amino acids
Isoleucine, Ile; Leucine, Leu; Valine, Val; Phenylalanine, Phe; Tryptophan, Trp; histidine, His; threonine, Thr; Methionine, Met; Lysine, Lys;
G PVT TIM HALL
Arg is conditional
My Tall Vegan Friend Is Watering Kale Leaves
Lipid soluble vitamins
Retinol (A), Retinioic acid (A)
Panthothenic acid B5
Folic Acid B9
B1, deficient in alchoholism. Dry/wet beriberi (muscle wasting, partila paralysis/ cardiac failure, peripheral edema)
ATP: alpha-ketogluatarate dehydrogenase
"Ber1Ber1 = B1"
B2, forms coenzyme FAD/FMN. Cheilosis/stomatisis, magenta-colored tongue, corenal neovascularization
"Fad and Fmn are derived from riboFlavin"
"B2 = 2 ATP"
"2 C's of B2 = Cheilosis (inflamed lips, fissures at corners", Corneal vascularization
B3, coenzyme for NAD(H), NADP(H). Hartnup Disease: imparied AA absorbption, have this deficiency and deficient in tryptophan. Pellagra (from malnutrition)
"3 D's" of B 3: Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis"
B5, synth of coenzyme A (affects TCA cycle, FA metabolism, chelsterol synth) dermatitis, paresthea, muscle cramps
"Pento"thenic acid for B5
B6, ALT and AST, heme synthesis affected. Sideroblastic anemia!!!, cheilosis/stomatitis
Transaminases use a coenzyme derived by B6, PLP (pyridoxyl 5' phosphate) for making Met into Succinyl CoA. Lack of PLP causes hyperhomocysteinemia and homocystinuria
Biotin, cofactor for carboxylation enzymed (gluconeogenesis, FA syunth, Odd carbon FA synth).
"Avidin in egg whites AVIDly binds to biotin"
From excessive raw egg consumption bc avidin binds to biotin-binding protien.
Alopecia, rashes, seborrheic dermatitis
Folic Acid (folate)
B9, get defficeint during pregnancy or alchool.
Causes spina bifida in baby. For in body pyrimidine synthesis
"Folate from Foliage"
B12, pernicious anemia causes, vegetarian diet.
Causes issues making methionine or succinyl CoA.
Get Megaloblastic anemia, neruopathis, homocysteinemia (CV disease, DVT, stroke
5' deoxyadenosylcobalamin has adenine in it
C, collagen synthesis, dopaime (so norepinephrine too), decr. FE absorbption, C is antioxidant.
Scurvy, poor wound healing and bloody gums, anemia
"Vitamin C def. causes sCurvy, due to Collagen synthl defect"
Affects vision and maintaining epithelium (retinol, retinoic acid, retinal). from malnutrition or fat malabsorption.
"ISoTRETinoin is TERATogenic"
Night blindness, frequent infection.
Teratogenic in pregnancy (if eat something with too much Vit. A bc it's fat soluble
D2, D3, calcifediol, calcitriol. Good for GI tract for phsophate absorption, kidneys,
Bone: osteoblasts receptors, helps for bone resorption
Get Rickets (slow growth, bowed legs, breastbone projection), osteomalacia
Where are branched chained AA's degraded?
NOT liver, bc it lacks aminotransferase
in muscle, kidney, brain
3 ways Glu, glutamate, helps with the removal of the an amino group?
1. oxadative (deaminatino of glutamate, releasing ammonium)
2. transfer of amino group to pyruvate by ALT
3. transfer of amiono group to OAA (oxyloacetate) by AST
what's alpha ketoglutarate
made from glutamate, it's the 4th intermediate.
Gln, Pro, His, Arg make glutamate.
what aa's contribute towards Succinyl CoA in the Krebs cycle?
Met, Thr, Val, Ile
What does Leu contribute for in the Krebs cycle?
What AA's metabolism may lead to homocystinuria?
Methionin to make Succinyl CoA
Mutation in cystothionine B-synthase if PLP (pryridoxal phosphate, B6) lacking
Build up of Homocysteine, it cannot change to Cystathionine
Three amino acids that are branched chained? what do they contribute ot making? Which AA can lead to Maple syrup urine disease
Valine, Isoleucine, Leucine
Val, Ile ---> Succinyl CoA
Ile, Leu-----> make acetyle CoA
Leu makes Maple Syrup Syndrome bc. lacking BCKD
Phe and Asn contribute to
Phe makes fumerate and also acetoacetate
Asn makes oxaloacette
What important molecules are derivatives of tryptophan?
Carcinoid tumors overproduce what molecule?
What are derivatives of tyrosine?
Both: graves disease, Hyper/hypothyroidism
Melanin (lacking = albinism)
Dopamine (lacking = parkinsons)
Diff. in how nitrogen is removed from the brain vs. muscle?
Glu and Gln
Glutamine synthase (GLDH)
After N is removed from tissue/ brain as ____ it goes to the ______ in the liver.
NH4+ turned to Glu, Gln, Ala
2 AA's that aren't used for protein sysntheses, but soley for the Urea Cycle in the liver
What's the final form of Ammonia (NH4+)?
Where does the Urea Cycle happen? it's also called ___.
Liver, btwn the cytosol, and outer membrane of the mitochondria
What three AA's make Creatine?
Arg, Gly, Met
What is a quick form of energy for muscle to get ATP?
Met, His ,Val
"i Met His Valentine, she's so sweet"
both glucogenci and ketogentic
____ amino acids can be classified as glucogenic, ____ or both.
Conditionally essential AA's?
in adults: Arg, Glut for immunosupressed, post-op infections
K is for Koaglulation.
many clotting factors
Arginine, Histidine, Lysine
"His Lys (lies) Are Basic"
Precursors of gluconeogenesis?
Glycerol - lipid degridation - DHAP, a phosprylated glycerol intermediate
Propionate - degrad odd # FA's - TCA intermediate (succinyl CoA) converted to malate
Alanine - protein degradatin - pyruvated (deamination of alanine)
Amiono acids (except Leu/Lys, which are glygocenic) - protein degridation - TCA intermediates, converted to malate
Precursors for TCA intermediates are ____.
Oxaloacetate made from
Asn to Asp
Fumarate made from
Phe to Tyrosidne
Trp to Ala
Thr (makes Acetyle CoA too) to Gly to Ser
Acetyl Co A
Acetoacetate, which goes to Acetyl CoA made from
Thr, Lys, Tyr
Gln, His, Arge, Pro, all make Glu that makes this
Ile (also acetul CoA), Val, Met, Thr