Nutrients (AA and Vitamins) Flashcards Preview

MCM: Biochem, Exam 1 > Nutrients (AA and Vitamins) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrients (AA and Vitamins) Deck (49):
1

Essential amino acids

Isoleucine, Ile; Leucine, Leu; Valine, Val; Phenylalanine, Phe; Tryptophan, Trp; histidine, His; threonine, Thr; Methionine, Met; Lysine, Lys;

G PVT TIM HALL
Arg is conditional


My Tall Vegan Friend Is Watering Kale Leaves

2

Lipid soluble vitamins

Retinol (A), Retinioic acid (A)
Calcitriol (D)
Vit. K
Vit. E

3

Water soluble

Thiamine B1
Riboflavin B2
Niacin B3
Panthothenic acid B5
Pyridoxine B6
Biotin B7
Folic Acid B9
Cobalamin B12
Ascorbate C

4

B1, deficient in alchoholism. Dry/wet beriberi (muscle wasting, partila paralysis/ cardiac failure, peripheral edema)
ATP: alpha-ketogluatarate dehydrogenase
"Ber1Ber1 = B1"

Thiamine

5

B2, forms coenzyme FAD/FMN. Cheilosis/stomatisis, magenta-colored tongue, corenal neovascularization
"Fad and Fmn are derived from riboFlavin"
"B2 = 2 ATP"
"2 C's of B2 = Cheilosis (inflamed lips, fissures at corners", Corneal vascularization

Riboflavin

6

B3, coenzyme for NAD(H), NADP(H). Hartnup Disease: imparied AA absorbption, have this deficiency and deficient in tryptophan. Pellagra (from malnutrition)
"3 D's" of B 3: Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis"

Niacin

7

B5, synth of coenzyme A (affects TCA cycle, FA metabolism, chelsterol synth) dermatitis, paresthea, muscle cramps
"Pento"thenic acid for B5

Pantothenic acid

8

B6, ALT and AST, heme synthesis affected. Sideroblastic anemia!!!, cheilosis/stomatitis

Transaminases use a coenzyme derived by B6, PLP (pyridoxyl 5' phosphate) for making Met into Succinyl CoA. Lack of PLP causes hyperhomocysteinemia and homocystinuria

Pyridoxine

9

Biotin, cofactor for carboxylation enzymed (gluconeogenesis, FA syunth, Odd carbon FA synth).
"Avidin in egg whites AVIDly binds to biotin"
From excessive raw egg consumption bc avidin binds to biotin-binding protien.
Alopecia, rashes, seborrheic dermatitis

B7

10

Folic Acid (folate)

B9, get defficeint during pregnancy or alchool.
Causes spina bifida in baby. For in body pyrimidine synthesis
"Folate from Foliage"
green veggies

11

Cobalamin

B12, pernicious anemia causes, vegetarian diet.
Causes issues making methionine or succinyl CoA.
Get Megaloblastic anemia, neruopathis, homocysteinemia (CV disease, DVT, stroke

5' deoxyadenosylcobalamin has adenine in it

12

Ascorbate

C, collagen synthesis, dopaime (so norepinephrine too), decr. FE absorbption, C is antioxidant.
Scurvy, poor wound healing and bloody gums, anemia

"Vitamin C def. causes sCurvy, due to Collagen synthl defect"

13

Vitamin A

Affects vision and maintaining epithelium (retinol, retinoic acid, retinal). from malnutrition or fat malabsorption.
"ISoTRETinoin is TERATogenic"
Night blindness, frequent infection.
Teratogenic in pregnancy (if eat something with too much Vit. A bc it's fat soluble

14

Vitamin D

D2, D3, calcifediol, calcitriol. Good for GI tract for phsophate absorption, kidneys,
Bone: osteoblasts receptors, helps for bone resorption
Get Rickets (slow growth, bowed legs, breastbone projection), osteomalacia

15

Where are branched chained AA's degraded?

NOT liver, bc it lacks aminotransferase
in muscle, kidney, brain

16

3 ways Glu, glutamate, helps with the removal of the an amino group?

1. oxadative (deaminatino of glutamate, releasing ammonium)
2. transfer of amino group to pyruvate by ALT
3. transfer of amiono group to OAA (oxyloacetate) by AST

17

what's alpha ketoglutarate

made from glutamate, it's the 4th intermediate.
Gln, Pro, His, Arg make glutamate.

18

what aa's contribute towards Succinyl CoA in the Krebs cycle?

Met, Thr, Val, Ile

19

What does Leu contribute for in the Krebs cycle?

Acetyl CoA

20

What AA's metabolism may lead to homocystinuria?

Methionin to make Succinyl CoA
Mutation in cystothionine B-synthase if PLP (pryridoxal phosphate, B6) lacking

Build up of Homocysteine, it cannot change to Cystathionine

21

Three amino acids that are branched chained? what do they contribute ot making? Which AA can lead to Maple syrup urine disease

Valine, Isoleucine, Leucine
Val, Ile ---> Succinyl CoA
Ile, Leu-----> make acetyle CoA
Leu makes Maple Syrup Syndrome bc. lacking BCKD

22

Phe and Asn contribute to

Phe makes fumerate and also acetoacetate
Asn makes oxaloacette

23

What important molecules are derivatives of tryptophan?

Serotonin, Melatonin

24

Carcinoid tumors overproduce what molecule?

serotonin

25

What are derivatives of tyrosine?

T3 (triiodothyronine)
T4 (thyroxine)
Both: graves disease, Hyper/hypothyroidism
Melanin (lacking = albinism)
Dopamine (lacking = parkinsons)
Norepinephrine
epinephrine

26

Diff. in how nitrogen is removed from the brain vs. muscle?

Brain:
Glu and Gln
Glutamine synthase (GLDH)
Muscle:
Gln, Ala
uses ALT

27

After N is removed from tissue/ brain as ____ it goes to the ______ in the liver.

NH4+ turned to Glu, Gln, Ala

Urea Cycle

28

2 AA's that aren't used for protein sysntheses, but soley for the Urea Cycle in the liver

Ornithine, Citrulline

29

What's the final form of Ammonia (NH4+)?

Urea

30

Where does the Urea Cycle happen? it's also called ___.

Liver, btwn the cytosol, and outer membrane of the mitochondria

Ornithine Cycle

31

What three AA's make Creatine?

Arg, Gly, Met

32

What is a quick form of energy for muscle to get ATP?

Phosphocreatine

33

Ketogenic AA's?

Lysine, Leucine

34

Glucogenic AA's?

Met, His ,Val
"i Met His Valentine, she's so sweet"

35

both glucogenci and ketogentic

PITTT
Phenylalanine
Isoleucine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Tyrosine

36

____ amino acids can be classified as glucogenic, ____ or both.

Essential
Ketogenic

37

Conditionally essential AA's?

in adults: Arg, Glut for immunosupressed, post-op infections

38

vitamin K

K is for Koaglulation.
many clotting factors

39

Basic aa's

Arginine, Histidine, Lysine
"His Lys (lies) Are Basic"

40

Precursors of gluconeogenesis?

"GAPA"
Glycerol - lipid degridation - DHAP, a phosprylated glycerol intermediate

Propionate - degrad odd # FA's - TCA intermediate (succinyl CoA) converted to malate

Alanine - protein degradatin - pyruvated (deamination of alanine)

Amiono acids (except Leu/Lys, which are glygocenic) - protein degridation - TCA intermediates, converted to malate

41

Precursors for TCA intermediates are ____.

amino acids

42

Oxaloacetate made from

Asn to Asp

43

Fumarate made from

Phe to Tyrosidne

44

Pyruvate:

Cys
Trp to Ala
Thr (makes Acetyle CoA too) to Gly to Ser

45

Acetyl Co A

Leu

46

Acetoacetate, which goes to Acetyl CoA made from

Thr, Lys, Tyr

47

Alpha Ketoglutarate

Gln, His, Arge, Pro, all make Glu that makes this

48

Succinyl CoA

Ile (also acetul CoA), Val, Met, Thr

49

Name the B vitamins?

“The Runner Now Pants &Pants Because of the F*cking Cold”
B1: Thiamine
B2: Riboflavin
B3: Niacine
B5: PANTothenic acid
B6: piridoxin
B7: biotin
B9: Folic acid
B12: Cobalamine