Protein Metabolism Flashcards Preview

MCM: Biochem, Exam 1 > Protein Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Protein Metabolism Deck (32):
1

Exopeptidase vs. endopeptidase

exo: attacks C or N-terminus ends
endo: attacks withing specific site, digests internal pep. bonds

2

the "kitchen disposal" for proteins, that utilizes ubiquinin as a marker for degradation

Proteasomal degradation
sucks protein in, shreds it to peptide fragments

3

Proteolytic enzyme are ____, because they are inactive until the body relases another enzyme____ to activate it. For example Trypsinogen

inactive zymogens
enterokinase

It turns from chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin
or trypsinogen to trypsin
both activated my enterokinase

4

Conditionally essential AA's?
essential?

Arginine and glutamine
PVT TIM Hall
Phe
Val
Trp
Thr
Isoleucine
Methionine
Histdidine
Arg
Lys
Leu

5

Branching AAs

Ile
Leu
Val

6

Name a transaminase enzyme that's a derivative of B6?
Other ones?

Pyridoxyl 5' Phosphate (PLP)

Alanine transaminase(ALT)
Aspartate transaminase (AST)

7

alpha ketoglutarate is made from what? what is this important for?

Glu (glutamate) which is made from Gln, His, Arg, Pro
Product of Isocitrate in the TCA

8

Succinyl CoA is made from what AAs?
What is it important for?

Met, Thr, Ile, Leu, Val
TCA Cycle

9

Homocystinuria is a disease fromt eh break down of what aa?

Met
Affects:Eyes, skeleton, CNS, vascular

10

Homocystinuria is the defect in what enzyme?
What vit. are deficient?

cystathionine beta-sythase
B6, B12, Folic acid
B6 = Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)****

11

Leu to ____ issue can cause Maple syrup urine dis.

Acetyl CoA
deficient in branched-chain alpha keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD)

12

____ to Tyr to eventualy fumarate is the pathway PKU can arise from if ___ is defective.

Phe
phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH)

Phe turns to phenyllactate, phenyllactate and pheylacetate,

13

___ is a precursor of serotonin and melatonin.

Trp

14

If tyrosinase is deficient what diesease occurs?

Albinism, absence of pigmentation

15

what protein is the precursor of T3 and T4?

Thyroglobulin

16

What AA's are removed from the rbain for overall Ammonia?
in other tissues?

Glu, Gln in brain
Gln, Ala in tissue

17

Ammonia vs. Ammonium

Ammonia = NH3
Ammonium ion = NH4+

18

___ to glutamate to glutamine ---->bloodstrem to liver's urea cycle for removal of excess NH4+ in BRAIN

alpha - ketoglutarate

19

GLu to ALa --->bloodstream to liver's urea cycle

Ammonium removal from muscle

20

Where does the Urea Cycle occur?

Btwn teh mitochondria and the cytosol in teh liver

21

Two AA's that don't make protein, are only for precursors in the Urea Cycle

ornithine
citurlline

22

H20 + ____ = Urea
Where is Urea released?

Arg
in the cyytosol, gets sent via blood to kidney

23

3 AA's that make Creatine?

"Always Growing Muscle"
Arg
Gly
Met

24

Quick form of atp for muscles, brain, sperm

phosphocreatine

25

In removing ammonium from the liver and muscle, what forms are they made as to be sent to the liver and go to the urea cycle?

Brain: sends Gln
Muscle: sends Ala

26

To make Alpha ketoglutarate ?

Glu

To make Glu

“His Gluts Are Plump”
His
Gln
Arg
Pro

27

What AA makes just Acetyl CoA? Why?

Leu
It’s ketogenic

Lys makes only acetoacetate

28

What makes fumarate? Diseases with this pathway?

Phe
To
Tyr

Alkaltonuria, defective homogentisate oxidase

29

What makes oxyloacetate?
Where else is oxyo. Important?

Asn to asp

Fa synth

30

Trp makes what? What vitamin does it need to do it
What disease with this path

Serotonin then melatonin
Trp in TURKEY so you get SLEEPY

Needs B6

Carcinoid Tumor

31

Tyr makes what?
What diseases

T3, T4 graves and hypo/hyperthyroidism
(T3 (triiodthryonin), T4 (Thyroxine) )
Melatonin, albinism

dopamine, Parkinson’s

Norepinephrine
Epinephrine

32

Ammonia isn’t charge so why is it more toxic than ammonium ion?

NH3

Can travel across biological membranes