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Flashcards in nutrition Deck (46):
1

Vitamin A deficiency

Retinol deficiency. Most common cause of blindness in young children worldwide. xerophtalmia, night blindness (nyctalopia) keratinization and clouding of cornea

2

Vitamin A toxicity

pseudotumor cerebri, scaly skin and hepatomegaly

3

Vitamin B1 deficiency

Thiamine deficiency. Beri, beri - confusion, peripheral paralysis, muscle weakness, tachycardia, cardiomegaly. wernicke encephalopathy: confusion, ataxia, opthalmoplegia and Korsakoff: worse forma of wernicke with memoy loss and confabulation

4

Vitamin B2 deficiency

Riboflavin deficiency. Anemia, cheilosis, stomatitis and seborrheic dermatitis. Premies on prolonged phototherapy are at risk for riboflavin deficiency

5

Vitamin B3 deficiency

Niacin deficiency. Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, glossitis

6

Vitamin B6 deficiency

Pyridoxine. Swelling of the tongue and rash - neuropathy

7

Vitamin B6 toxicity

Neuropathy

8

Vitamin B9 deficiency

Folate deficiency. large tongue and macrocytic anemia

9

Vitamin C deficiency

initial signs are nondescript - irritability, digestive disturbance, anorexia. Follicular hyperkeratosis, bleeding gums, poor wound healing, corkscrew hairs, normocytic, normochromic anemia. Xray findings = dense bands at metaphyseal end.

10

Vitamin E deficiency

hemolytic anemia in preemies and neurological effects in older children (neuropathy and muscle weakness), peripheral edema, thrombocytosis

11

Why do kids turn yellow when they eat too many carrots/sweet potatoes?

Taking in a lot of beta carotene which is converted to vita A. Make sure sclera and oral mucosa are not yellow. No need to get bili if no icterus

12

Vitamin D excess

causes hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, nausea, vomiting, weakness. Manage with hydration, corerction of electrolyte disturbances and lasix. Can have polyuria, polydipsia and renal failure

13

Ergocalciferol

Vitamin D2. plant derived, not as potent in raising 25-OH vita d levels as D3

14

cholecalciferol

Vitamin D3. animal based

15

calcidiol

25- hydroxy vita D - hydroxylated in the liver

16

calcitriol

1,25 hydroxycalciferol - activated form, hydroxylated in the kidney

17

lab abnormalities in rickets

vitamin D low, PTH high, ca and phos may be normal. elevated alk phos

18

What are the caloric requirements for a child?

first 10kg = 100kcal/kg (early newborn and preemie may be as high as 120-150), second 10kg = 50kcal/kg, next 10kg = 20 kcal/kg

19

What are the caloric requirements for term and preterm infant?

100-120kcal/kg/d

20

How much protein per day do premature infants require?

3.5g/kg/d

21

How much protein do term infants need?

2-2.5g/kg/d for first 6 months

22

How much iron supplementation should be in iron fortified formula?

12mg/L. * Iron fortified formula doesnt cause constipation

23

What are the symptoms of milk protein allergy/intolerance?

Vomiting, rash, irritability, may have heme positive stools, or blood in stool

24

What is treatment of milk protein allergy/severe intolerance?

Change to protein hydrolysate formula or completely eliminate protein (dairy) from mothers diet

25

What is the frequency of cows milk allergy/intolerance and when does it resolve?

Cow milk–protein intolerance is reported in 2% to 5% of infants within the first 1 to 3 months of life, typically resolves by 1 year of age

26

Zinc deficiency

dry skin, thin hair, poor wound healing, perioral rashes, hypogeusia (decreased taste) ,*Breast milk has a protein that helps zinc absorption so if a kid recently weaned, probably this, Menkes kinky hair syndrome

27

Why can't babies get cows milk until 1 year of age

because has higher phosphorus load which can cause hypocalcemia

28

Drugs for which breast feeding is contraindicated

metronidazole, diazepam, antithyroid meds, chemotherapy, tetracycline, sulfonamides

29

Which has more whey, human or cows milk?

human milk (70;30%), cows (20:80%)

30

How much should a newborn gain per day in first few days of life?

20-30g/d (Needs 100kcal/kg/d)

31

How much does a preemie gain in first few days?

May only gain 15-20g/d on 120kcal/kg/d

32

Overweight BMI

85th -95th percentile

33

Obesity BMI

>95th percentile

34

Severe Obesity BMI

>99th percentile

35

Kids on goat milk are at risk for...

folate deficiency

36

Vegan kids are at risk for...

b12 deficiency, iron, Ca, Zn def (Can only get B12 from animal products therefore have to take a supplement)

37

Excess vitamin C

oxalate and cysteine nephrosclerosis. Can trigger hemolytic crisis is G6PD patients

38

Treatment of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn

vitamin K (for factor 2,7,9,10), FFP for clotting factors immediately

39

Kwashiorkor

strictly a protein deficiency. Typically develops in young kids during weaning or post-weaning period. Pitting edema, rash, thin/frail hair, pallor, overall thin appearance, hepatomegaly, increased risk of infection. May have "flag sign" alternating areas of goo and bad hair b/c nutritional intake is seasonal.

40

If on goats milk, what are kids at risk for?

folate deficiency

41

Marasmus

general nutritional disorder. Muscle wasting without edema. lose temporal and buccalf at pads at end stage.

42

Most common complication of NG tube

1 - diarrhea 2 - GE reflux

43

Most severe complication of NG tube

vomiting with aspiration

44

Which vitamins are very important for wound healing

Vita A, C, zinc and iron

45

When should you supplement infants with iron and how much?

Breastfed babies, 4-6 months should get 1mg/kg of iron until iron rich foods are introduced. No supplementation needed if formula fed. All preterm, breastfed infants need 2mg/kg starting at 1 month of age until 12mos. If formula fed and preterm, may still benefit from 1mg/kg

46

Who needs fluoride supplementation?

If fluoride in the water is negligible (0.6PPM