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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (13):
1

Describe muscle condition scoring system

3- good muscle tone
2- mild muscle wasting
1- moderate muscle wasting
0- marked muscle wasting

2

Functions of arginine

Polyamine synthesis (growth and proliferation)
proline synthesis (wound healing)
precursor for NO

Arginine deficiency is associated with suppression of T-lymphocyte function

3

Functions of glutamine

tissue protection (heat shock proteins, maintenance of gut barrier integrity and function, decreased apoptosis)

anti-inflammatory and immune modulation (decreased cytokines and inhibition of NF-kb)

Preservation of metabolic function (improved insulin sensitivity, ATP synthesis)

Antioxidant effects , attenuation of iNOS activity

4

What is recommended amount of enteral protein intake for dogs and cats as g/kcal and as % of total energy

4-6 g protein/100 kcal (15-25% of total energy) for dogs

>6 g protein/100 kcal (25-35% total energy) for cats

5

What are bloodwork findings for re-feeding syndrome?

hypokalemia
hypophosphatemia
hypomagnesemia

6

What % of PN is recommended as protein calories, non-protein calories?

Dogs- 25% total energy as protein.
Of remaining energy - 70% as lipid and 30% as dextrose

7

What cut-off is recommended for GRV before adjusting feedings?

500 mL - humans
10 mL/kg.

8

Mack JVECC 2016- Development and characterization of a technique for percutaneous radiologic gastrojejunostomy tube placement in the dog

Procedure time?
Major complication?

Used ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance.
Median total procedure time- 53 minutes.

Major complication in 1/6 - linear FB.
Others were mild- peristomal inflammation.

9

Herring 2016: A novel placement technique for NG and NE tubes.

What was technique?

Measure from nose to thoracic inlet- when placing tubes and you reach this point, stop and test for negative pressure using 12 mL syringe prior to continuing.

10

Tsuruta 2016 Evaluation of jejunostomy tube feeding after abdominal surgery in dogs

Complications?
Albumin and association with survival and complications?

Very few complications, none life-threatening.

Feedings were initiated early after surgery and did not interfere with voluntary oral intake.

No difference in pre-operative plasma albumin concentration between dogs with and without complications and between survivors and non-survivors.

11

Olan JVECC 2015- Retrospective evaluation of procalamine administration in a population of hospitalized ICU dogs : 36 cases.

What is procalamine?
What RER was it able to provide?
How was it delivered?
Overall mechanical and metabolic complication rates?
what were metabolic complications?

PN formulation that excludes the lipid component- able to be delivered parenterally.

median 33% RER
central line 86%, peripheral 14%

Mechanical- 19%
Metabolic 33%
- hyponatremia *, hyperglycemia, hypochloremia, azotemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis.

12

Prantil JVECC 2016: Nutritional analysis and microbiological evaluation of commercially available enteral diets for cats.

Of 7 diets, how many were truly found to be complete and balanced?

What was most common deficiency?

4/7 diets were classified as complete and balanced and 3 diets not classified as complete and balanced.

All 7 diets had at least 1 nutrient less than AAFCO minimums and the NRC-RA.

Most common- iron, potassium, and manganese.

Cultures taken over 7 days of storage were negative.

13

List 7 predisposing factors for AP including drugs

hyperlipidemia
dietary indiscretion
overweight
hypercalcemia
ischemia
endocrinopathies
drugs- ELSPAR, KBr, PB, OP