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Flashcards in Repro Deck (32):

What factors can increase anatomic dead space?

increasing body size
increasing age
increasing lung volume
sat posture
hypoxia (bronchoconstriction)
Lung disease (emphysema)
Endotracheal intubation


What is physiologic dead space and what can it be increased by?

sum of anatomic dead space and alveolar dead space

increasing age
decreased pulmonary artery pressure
Increasing tidal volume
Hyperoxic vasodilation
Anesthetic gases
Lung diseases (ALI/ARDS, PTE, atelectasis)


What is perfusion limited gas? what is diffusion limited?

Diffusion limited- CO
Persfusion limited- NO

O2 and CO2 are perfusion limited under normal circumstances, but diffusion limitation can occur under some conditions- intense exercise, thickening of blood-gas barrier, and alveolar hypoxia.


Normal A-A Gradient

<15 mmHg


Swann JVECC 2016 Prevalence and risk factors for development of hemorrhagic GI disease in veterinary ICUs in UK

Rate of HE in dogs and cats?
Risk factors?
Associations with mortality?

2-10% depending on ICU in dogs; none in cats

Albumin, administration of GI protectants and institution were significantly associated w/ development

Development of hemorrhagic GI dz and placement of feeding tube significantly associated with mortality.


What anti-emetic can be used in pregnant dogs



Does brucellosis cause early or late abortions



What problems does canine herpesvirus cause in ear/mid/and late pregnancy?

Early - fetal death and mummification
mid- abortion
Late- Premature birth

May be born healthy but become ill and die w/in first several weeks


What virus is associated with cerebellar hypoplasia in cats?

feline panleukapenia


What is ferguson reflex

Delivery of puppy into cervix triggers release of oxytocin from hypothalamus


What type of placentation do dogs and cats have



What is distribution of placenta in dogs and cats?



What is an example of a progesterone receptor antagonist and what is it used for ?


Convert a closed-pyo to an open.


What are 3 medical management options for pro

Progesterone receptor antagonists
Prostaglandin F2a
Dopamine agonists. (cause luteolysis by reducing prolactin concentrations)


What is the recurrence rate for medically managed pyometra?

20-77% within 1-2 years
slightly lower in queens- 3/21


What is "neonatal period"

2 weeks of life


at what age should babies have normal adult temperature

4 weeks


how long do typical innocent murmurs last

12 weeks


What heart rate is normal in young animals and up to what age

200-250 bpm for puppies and kittens until 4 weeks


When is the Hct nadir?

4 weeks


What adjustment should be made when radiographing neonates?

Drop KVP by 50% of adult level
Use detailed film/screens


List 6 reasons why neonates have a higher fluid requriement

Higher percentage of total body water
Higher ratio of surface area to body weight
Higher metabolic rate
More permeable skin
Decreased renal concentrating ability
Less body fat


When does urinary glucose absorption normalize in puppies?

3 weeks


What is goal weight gain for pupppies and kittens

Puppies should double their weight within 10 days of birth, and gain 5-10% of their body weight per day

Nursing kittens should also double weight within first 10 days and normal kittens gain 10-15 g/day .


When does MAP normalize in puppies?

9 months


Is CVP higher or lower in puppies than in dogs at 1 month and when does it normalize?

higher in puppies (8 cm H2o) , normalizes at 9 months.


When do puppies gain the ability to concentrate their urine?

10 weeks


Why and for how long should oral drugs be administered in neonates

First 72 hours of life- because absorption is significantly HIGHER due to increased GI permeability.


Garcia-Silva 2015 JVECC influence of obstetrical condition on canine neonatal pulmonary functional competence

Was delivery method (normal, dystocia, C-section) significant in regards to respiratory parameters?

What is L/S ratio and how was that significant in this study?

Respiratory effort of normal delivery group improved immediately after birth whereas dystocia and c-sect groups only improved 1 hour following birth.

L/S ratio - ratio of main phospholipids in surfactant (lecithin and sphingomyelin). Higher L/S ratios indicate more mature fetal lungs (i.e., ample surfactant).

In this study, c- section group had lower L/S ratio.


Liao 2014 JVECC Decreased postoperative CRP production in dogs with pyometra through use of low-dose ketamine.

Low-dose ketamine group receiving ketamine pre-op, intraop- and 24 hours post-op had significantly lower serum c-reactive protein.

Ketamine has been shown in animal models of sepsis to depress production of TNFa and IL-6.


When should the first puppy be born after the onset of stage 2 labor?

The first puppy is usually born within 4 h of the onset of stage two labor, and subsequent births occur every 15 min to 2 h


How successful is medical management in queens vs. medical management in bitches?

In the queen, medical management of dystocia appears less successful, with less than one- third of the queens responding to medical treatment alone