Flashcards in nutrition Deck (160)
functions of carbs
- 16 kilojoules of energy per gram of carb you eat (vs. protein 17kjs per gram, of protein)
- Replenish and maintain muscles
- Structure of cells
- Optimise brain function
- Assists in nutrient absorption
sources of carbs
- Ice cream
examples of monosaccharide
glucose, galactose, and fructose
examples of disaccharide
Glucose + fructose = sucrose
Glucose + galactose = lactose
Glucose + glucose = maltose
examples of polysaccharides
starch, glycogen, pectin, dietary fibre
sources and examples of proteins
- Albumen in eggs
- Haemoglobin in meat - Gluten in wheat
- Elastin in meat
how are proteins recognisable?
they often end in ‘en’ or ‘in’
what are proteins made up of?
what is the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids?
Nonessential amino acids can be made by the body, while essential amino acids cannot be made by the body so you must get them from your diet. You must have all of the amino acids so your body can build the wide variety of proteins it needs.
explain globular proteins?
Globular proteins have 3 dimensional globe like shape
examples of globular proteins?
albumin in eggs, caseinogen in milk, haemoglobin in meat
explain fibrous proteins?
Fibrous proteins have a linear and more elongated shape tthat can coil
examples of fibrous proteins?
coiled - gluten in wheat
straight - elastin in meat
what are complete proteins?
complete - contains all eight essential amino acids
what are incomplete proteins?
proteins that lack one or more essential amino acids
what are the two types of lipids?
fat and oil
explain fat lipids (including examples etc.)
solid at room temp, E.G. butter, mostly animal source, mostly saturated fats,
explain oil lipids
liquid at room temp E.G. olive oil, mostly monounsaturated fats E.G. sunflower oil, nuts, avocados
what are saturated fats
no double bonds along the chain
what are monounsaturated fats
one double bond
what are polyunsaturated fats
several double bonds
what risk factors are associated saturated fats?
heart disease, as they increase bad low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels
what are triglycerides?
3 fatty acids connected to a glycerol
what is the main sterol?
functions of the phospholipids
provides barriers in cellular membranes to protect the cell, they make barriers for the organelles within those cells
what are vitamins?
Vitamins are substances that the body is unable to synthesise, they are necessary to our diet for the body. Vitamins are required in small amounts, each is essential to good health. Can be classified as ‘essential non - nutrients and others act as antioxidants.
is vitamin B1 water or fat soluble?
function of water soluble B1
part of an enzyme needed for releasing energy for metabolism and its very important for nerve function and maintaining muscle
sources of water soluble B1
beef, liver, nuts, oats, seeds, pork, eggs, seeds, legumes, peas