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Flashcards in nutrition Deck (160)
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1

functions of carbs

- Energy
- 16 kilojoules of energy per gram of carb you eat (vs. protein 17kjs per gram, of protein)
- Replenish and maintain muscles
- Structure of cells
- Optimise brain function
- Assists in nutrient absorption

2

sources of carbs

- Milk
- Yoghurt
- Ice cream
- Bread
- Rice
- Cereal
- Potatoes

3

examples of monosaccharide

glucose, galactose, and fructose

4

examples of disaccharide

Glucose + fructose = sucrose

Glucose + galactose = lactose

Glucose + glucose = maltose

5

examples of polysaccharides

starch, glycogen, pectin, dietary fibre

6

sources and examples of proteins

- Albumen in eggs
- Haemoglobin in meat - Gluten in wheat
- Elastin in meat

7

how are proteins recognisable?

they often end in ‘en’ or ‘in’

8

what are proteins made up of?

amino acids

9

what is the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids?

Nonessential amino acids can be made by the body, while essential amino acids cannot be made by the body so you must get them from your diet. You must have all of the amino acids so your body can build the wide variety of proteins it needs.

10

explain globular proteins?

Globular proteins have 3 dimensional globe like shape

11

examples of globular proteins?

albumin in eggs, caseinogen in milk, haemoglobin in meat

12

explain fibrous proteins?

Fibrous proteins have a linear and more elongated shape tthat can coil

13

examples of fibrous proteins?

coiled - gluten in wheat
straight - elastin in meat

14

what are complete proteins?

complete - contains all eight essential amino acids

15

what are incomplete proteins?

proteins that lack one or more essential amino acids

16

what are the two types of lipids?

fat and oil

17

explain fat lipids (including examples etc.)

solid at room temp, E.G. butter, mostly animal source, mostly saturated fats,

18

explain oil lipids

liquid at room temp E.G. olive oil, mostly monounsaturated fats E.G. sunflower oil, nuts, avocados

19

what are saturated fats

no double bonds along the chain

20

what are monounsaturated fats

one double bond

21

what are polyunsaturated fats

several double bonds

22

what risk factors are associated saturated fats?

heart disease, as they increase bad low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels

23

what are triglycerides?

3 fatty acids connected to a glycerol

24

what is the main sterol?

cholesterol

25

functions of the phospholipids

provides barriers in cellular membranes to protect the cell, they make barriers for the organelles within those cells

26

what are vitamins?

Vitamins are substances that the body is unable to synthesise, they are necessary to our diet for the body. Vitamins are required in small amounts, each is essential to good health. Can be classified as ‘essential non - nutrients and others act as antioxidants.

27

is vitamin B1 water or fat soluble?

water

28

function of water soluble B1

part of an enzyme needed for releasing energy for metabolism and its very important for nerve function and maintaining muscle

29

sources of water soluble B1

beef, liver, nuts, oats, seeds, pork, eggs, seeds, legumes, peas

30

water soluble B1 DEFICIENCY

can cause beriberi