Flashcards in Nutrition and Energy Balance pt 2 Deck (98)
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1

What are the exocrine cells of the pancreas called?

Acinar cells

2

Do pancreatic islets contain endocrine or exocrine cells?

Endocrine

3

Alpha cells produce what?

Glucagon

4

Beta cells produce what?

Insulin

5

When is insulin secreted?

Blood glucose levels increase, blood levels of AAs and FAs increase, ACh is released by parasympathetic nerve fibers

6

What is insulin first synthesized as?

Proinsulin

7

What are the three ways that insulin lowers blood glucose?

Enhance membrane transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, inhibit breakdown of glycogen, inhibit conversion of AAs and fats to glucose

8

What is the net effect of insulin?

Lower blood glucose and AAs and FFAs, increased glycogen storage

9

What is glucagon triggered by?

Decreased blood glucose, rising AA levels, sympathetic NS

10

How does the liver use glucagon to raise blood glucose levels?

Glycogen into glucose, synthesize glucose from lactic acid and other noncarbs, release glucose into blood

11

What is the net effect of glucagon?

Increased blood glucose and blood AAs and FFAs, decreased glycogen storage

12

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by what?

High levels of blood glucose from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Complex disorders of CHO, fat and protein metabolism.

13

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 there is an absolute insulin deficiency, type 2 is insulin resistance

14

Which is more common, type 1 or type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 (90%) compared to type 1 (10%)

15

What are the consequences of insulin deficiency (diabetes)?

Decreased uptake of glucose by peripheral tissue, increased glucose production (gluconeogenesis) and increased release of glucose from the liver (glycogenolysis)

16

In type 1 diabetes, fats can be used as fuel which can cause _______: high levels of fatty acids in blood

Lipidemia

17

Fatty acid metabolism (lipolysis), as seen in type 1 diabetes, results in the formation of what energy source:

Ketones

18

List 3 risk factors for type 2 diabetes

Age, obesity, hypertension, inactivity, family history

19

What are some consequences of obesity related to type 2 diabetes?

Adipose tissue secrete hormones that decrease insulin sensitivity, increased FFAs and cholesterol, increase in inflammatory cytokines that cause insulin resistance and are toxic to beta cells

20

What are the cells of the liver called?

Hepatocytes- they carry out around 500 metabolic functions

21

What are some of the roles of the liver in metabolism?

Process every class of nutrient, regulate plasma cholesterol levels, store vitamins and minerals, metabolize alcohol, drugs, hormones, and bilirubin

22

Is cholesterol used as an energy source?

No

23

What is cholesterol used for?

Structural basis for bile salts, steroid hormones, vitamin D, major component of plasma membranes

24

__% of cholesterol is ingested and the rest is made in the liver

15

25

What molecule transports cholesterol through blood?

Lipoprotein

26

VLDLs have very low density, which means they have more/less lipids?

More

27

What are the four types of transport lipoproteins?

HDLs, LDLs, VLDLs, chylomicrons

28

What is the role of chylomicrons?

To carry absorbed lipids from intestine to liver

29

What is the role of VLDLs?

To carry TGs from liver to peripheral tissues, mostly to adipose tissue

30

What is the role of LDLs?

To carry cholesterol from liver to tissues